Henry Viii Family Tree

Others suspected of being Henry VIII's illegitimate kids come with: Thomas Stukley (Stukeley, Stuckley, Stucley) - Born 1520. It has been speculated that Jane Pollard was mistress to Henry VIII and Thomas was Henry's illegitimate son. Thomas Stukely was born c. 1520 to Jane Pollard, the wife of Sir Hugh Stukley.Henry VIII's Heir Problem . Henry VIII's marital historical past holds the pastime of historians and historic fiction writers alike. At the foundation of this marital history is a very actual concern of Henry's: begetting a male heir for the throne. He was acutely aware of the vulnerability of having best daughters or only one son.Henry VIII's Family Tree Catherine of Aragon Anne of Cleves Jane Seymour Phillip II of Spain James IV of Scotland James V of Scotland Archibald Douglas Earl of Angus Kathryn Howard Katherine Parr Mary of Guise Mary Queen of Scots Francois II, King of France James Hepburn, 4th Lord Bothwell M HOUSE OF STUART HOUSE OF TUDORA Tudor Family Tree. Shown above is the famous portrait appearing Henry VIII's line. Although this portray used to be painted while Henry VIII was once married to his sixth queen, Katherine Parr, she does no longer appear within the portrait. Instead, Henry VIII is proven along with his overdue wife Jane Seymour, the only wife to bear him a son.Henry VIII, 1491 - 1547 Henry VIII 1491 1547 Henry VIII was born on month day 1491, at beginning place , to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York VII . Henry used to be born on January 28 1457, in Pembroke.

Women and Henry VIII: Ancestors, Sisters, Wives, Heirs

Arthur Henry VIII Margaret Mary HOUSE OF TUDOR Richard III's Family Tree M Anne Neville Edward, Prince of Wales Richard III The Princes in the Tower HOUSE OF LANCASTER AND YORK 1455-1509 1475-1499 1473-1541 1462-1505 1470-1484 1462/64-1487 1471/72-1513 d. 1525 1415-1495 1411-1460Key info about King Henry VIII who was once born June 28, 1491, reigned (1509 - 1547) including biography, ancient timeline and hyperlinks to the British royal family tree.Henry VIII's Family Tree. By Mark Holinshed. Henry VIII's Parents. Lancaster Rose. Henry VII 1457-1509 Reign 1485-1509. Tudor Rose. Elizabeth of York 1466-1503. York Rose. Henry VIII and His SiblingsHenry VIII +4 others Margaret Beaufort Edmund Tudor +5 others +5 others figure 1 King Henry VIII's family tree. King Henry VIII is highlighted with blue textual content. Previous kings with psychiatric problems are in bold italics. To simplify the family tree only pairings which contributed genetically to King Henry VIII are proven, different marriages

Women and Henry VIII: Ancestors, Sisters, Wives, Heirs

PDF HOUSE OF TUDOR Henry VIII's Family Tree

Henry VIII to Frederic, John, and George, Dukes of Saxony. January. 20, 1523 re: Luther. Free scores by Henry VIII of England in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) Henry VIII of England House of Tudor Born: June 28 1491 Died: January 28 1547 Regnal titles Preceded by Henry VII King of England 21 April 1509 28 January 1547 Succeeded by way of Edward VIThe Tudor monarchs have been Henry VII (1485-1509), his son Henry VIII (1509-1547), and the latter's 3 kids Edward VI (1547-1553), Mary I (1553-1558), and Elizabeth I (1558-1603). The Tudors had been a family of Anglesey, Wales, of no great power however with an extended family historical past. A member of the family, Owen Tudor, married the widow of Henry V.Henry VIII's father sought after to verify his family's alliance with Spain, so he offered his younger son to Catherine, who was once the widow of Henry's brother Arthur.Of the eight four are recognized to have survived youth. Henry VII Died in 1509 and is buried within Westminster Abbey. King Henry VIII Family Tree. Despite the choice of marriages and next pregnancies that followed, Henry VIII family tree is reasonably brief. His elder brother Prince Arthur of Wales was married to Catherine of Aragon in 1501.Royal Family tree: Is Queen Elizabeth II related to King Henry VIII? THE British Royal Family tree is among one of the vital more complicated in Europe, with nearly a millennia of history and dozens of

House of Tudor

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House of TudorTudor roseParent spaceTudors of PenmynyddCountry Kingdom of England Kingdom of Ireland Principality of WalesFounded22 August 1485FounderHenry VIIFinal rulerElizabeth ITitles King of England King of Ireland King of France (claim) Lord of IrelandDissolution24 March 1603

The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh foundation,[1] descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of Ireland) from 1485 until 1603, with six monarchs in that length: Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Jane, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The Tudors succeeded the House of Plantagenet as rulers of the Kingdom of England, and have been succeeded by the House of Stuart. The first Tudor monarch, Henry VII of England, descended via his mother from a legitimised department of the English royal House of Lancaster, a cadet house of the Plantagenets. The Tudor family rose to energy in the wake of the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487), which left the Tudor-aligned House of Lancaster extinct in the male line.

Henry VII succeeded in presenting himself as a candidate not only for traditional Lancastrian supporters, but in addition for discontented supporters of their rival Plantagenet, cadet House of York, and he took the throne by way of appropriate of conquest. Following his victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485), he reinforced his place in 1486 by way of satisfying his 1483 vow to marry Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thus symbolically uniting the previous warring factions of Lancaster and York under the brand new dynasty. The Tudors extended their energy beyond fashionable England, achieving the total union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542 (Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542), and successfully saying English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland (proclaimed through the Crown of Ireland Act 1542). They additionally maintained the nominal English declare to the Kingdom of France; even though none of them made substance of it, Henry VIII fought wars with France trying to reclaim that identify. After him, his daughter Mary I misplaced regulate of all territory in France permanently with the autumn of Calais in 1558.

In general, the Tudor monarchs governed their domains for simply over a century. Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547) was the one son of Henry VII to reside to the age of maturity. Issues around royal succession (including marriage and the succession rights of girls) changed into main political subject matters throughout the Tudor technology. When Elizabeth I died childless, the Scottish House of Stuart succeeded as England's royal family during the Union of the Crowns of 24 March 1603. The first Stuart to transform King of England (r. 1603–1625), James VI and I, descended from Henry VII's daughter Margaret Tudor, who in 1503 had married King James IV of Scotland in accordance with the 1502 Treaty of Perpetual Peace.

For analysis of politics, international relations and social history, see Tudor duration.

Ascent to the throne

The Tudors descended on Henry VII's mother's aspect from John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, some of the children of the 14th century English prince John of Gaunt, the third surviving son of King Edward III. Beaufort's mom was once Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. The descendants of an illegitimate child of English royalty would normally have no claim at the throne, even though Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396, when John Beaufort used to be 25. The church then retroactively declared the Beauforts legit by way of a papal bull the same yr, confirmed by way of an Act of Parliament in 1397. A next proclamation by way of John of Gaunt's son via his earlier spouse Blanche of Lancaster, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy but declared the road ineligible for the throne. Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's descendants from his first marriage, the House of Lancaster, during the civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. However the descent from the Beauforts, didn't essentially render Henry Tudor heir to the throne, nor did the fact that his father's mother, Catherine of Valois, had been a Queen of England (although, this did make Henry the son of King Henry VI's half-brother). The professional declare was that of Henry Tudor's wife, Elizabeth of York, as daughter to Edward IV, and descendant of the second son of Edward III, Lionel, Duke of Clarence, and also his fourth son, Edmund, Duke of York. As she had no surviving brothers, Elizabeth had the most powerful claim to the crown, but whilst she changed into queen consort, she didn't rule as queen regnant; for the closing strive a female made at ruling in her own correct had ended in disaster when the mummy and uncle of Henry II of England fought bitterly for the throne in the 12th century.[2]

Family connections and the Wars of the Roses

The above-listed folks with well-defined facets are colored with pink borders for Lancastrians and blue for Yorkists (Richard Neville, sixteenth Earl of Warwick, aka Warwick the Kingmaker, his family, and George Plantagenet changed aspects, so they are represented with a pink border)

Edward IIIEdmund of Langley [notice 1]Edwardthe Black Prince [note 2]Lionel of Antwerp [be aware 3]John of Gaunt[observe 4]Richard IIPhilippaRoger MortimerElizabeth MortimerJoan BeaufortHenry IVBolingbrokeJohn BeaufortRichard of ConisburghAnne MortimerHenry PercyEleanor NevilleRichard NevilleWilliam NevilleHenry VCatherine of ValoisOwenTudorJohn BeaufortEdmund BeaufortRichard of YorkCecilyNevilleHenry PercyRichard NevilleJohn NevilleThomas NevilleMargaret of AnjouHenry VIEdmundTudorMargaret BeaufortHenry BeaufortEdmund BeaufortEdward IVGeorge PlantagenetIsabel NevilleRichard IIIAnne NevilleEdward of WestminsterEdward VElizabeth of YorkHenry VII TudorTudor dynasty ^ Fourth son. Thomas of Woodstock being the youngest ^ Firstborn son ^ Second son ^ Third son

Sources:[3][4][5] Henry Tudor had, however, one thing that the others did not. He had a military which defeated the remaining Yorkist king, Richard III, in the field of combat and the strengthen of robust nobles to take the crown by means of correct of conquest. How Richard III had come to the throne proved arguable, even amongst robust Yorkists. Henry Tudor, as Henry VII, and his son by Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII, eliminated other claimants to the throne, together with his first cousin once got rid of, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury,[6] and her family. Only Reginald Pole survived, however he was a cardinal within the Catholic Church, and not using a heirs. He later changed into Archbishop of Canterbury below Henry the VIII's Catholic daughter, Mary I.

On 1 November 1455, John Beaufort's granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, married Henry VI's maternal half-brother Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. It used to be his father, Owen Tudor (Welsh: Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur ap Goronwy ap Tudur ap Goronwy ap Ednyfed Fychan), who abandoned the Welsh patronymic naming practice and adopted a fixed surname. When he did, he did not make a choice, as used to be in most cases the customized, his father's title, Maredudd, however chose that of his grandfather, Tudur ap Goronwy, as an alternative. This identify is once in a while given as Tewdwr, the Welsh type of Theodore, but Modern Welsh Tudur, Old Welsh Tutir is in the beginning no longer a variant but a unique and entirely unrelated identify, etymologically an identical with Gaulish Toutorix,[7] from Proto-Celtic *toutā "people, tribe" and *rīxs "king" (examine Modern Welsh tud "territory" and rhi "king"[8] respectively), corresponding to Germanic Theodoric.

Owen Tudor was once some of the bodyguards for the queen dowager Catherine of Valois, whose husband, Henry V, had died in 1422. Evidence suggests that the 2 had been secretly married in 1429. The two sons born of the marriage, Edmund and Jasper, have been a number of the maximum dependable supporters of the House of Lancaster in its fight in opposition to the House of York. Henry VI ennobled his half-brothers: Edmund become Earl of Richmond on 15 December 1449[9] and was once married to Lady Margaret Beaufort, the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, the progenitor of the home of Lancaster; Jasper turned into Earl of Pembroke on 23 November 1452.[9]Edmund died on 3 November 1456. On 28 January 1457, his widow Margaret, who had simply attained her fourteenth birthday, gave delivery to a son, Henry Tudor, at her brother-in-law's Pembroke Castle.

Henry Tudor, the longer term Henry VII, spent his early life at Raglan Castle, the house of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, a number one Yorkist. Following the homicide of Henry VI and death of his son, Edward, in 1471, Henry changed into the person upon whom the Lancastrian cause rested. Concerned for his young nephew's life, Jasper Tudor took Henry to Brittany for protection. Lady Margaret remained in England and remarried, residing quietly while advancing the Lancastrian (and her son's) cause. Capitalizing at the rising unpopularity of Richard III (King of England from 1483), she used to be in a position to forge an alliance with discontented Yorkists in enhance of her son. Two years after Richard III was topped, Henry and Jasper sailed from the mouth of the Seine to the Milford Haven Waterway and defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485).[8] Upon this victory, Henry Tudor proclaimed himself King Henry VII.

Family tree of the principal contributors of the home of TudorRed textual content signifies Monarch of England. Blue textual content indicates Monarch of Scotland.

Henry VII

King Henry VII, the founder of the royal house of Tudor

Upon becoming king in 1485, Henry VII moved hastily to safe his dangle on the throne. On 18 January 1486 at Westminster, he honoured a pledge made three years previous and married Elizabeth of York[10] (daughter of King Edward IV). They were third cousins, as both were great-great-grandchildren of John of Gaunt. The marriage unified the warring houses of Lancaster and York and gave the couple's children a strong claim to the throne. The unification of the two houses thru this marriage is symbolized through the heraldic brand of the Tudor rose, a mixture of the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.

Henry VII and Elizabeth of York had several youngsters, 4 of whom survived infancy:

Arthur, Prince of Wales (born 1486, died 1502) Henry, Duke of York (born 1491, died 1547) Margaret (born 1489, died 1541), who married James IV of Scotland Mary (born 1496, died 1533), who married Louis XII of France

Henry VII's foreign coverage had an objective of dynastic safety: witness the alliance forged with the wedding in 1503 of his daughter Margaret to James IV of Scotland and throughout the marriage of his eldest son. In 1501 Henry VII married his son Arthur to Catherine of Aragon, cementing an alliance with the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. The newlyweds spent their honeymoon at Ludlow Castle, the normal seat of the Prince of Wales.[11] However, four months after the wedding, Arthur died, leaving his younger brother Henry as heir obvious. Henry VII bought a papal dispensation allowing Prince Henry to marry Arthur's widow; on the other hand, Henry VII behind schedule the wedding.

Henry VII restricted his involvement in European politics. He went to warfare only two times: once in 1489 throughout the Breton crisis and the invasion of Brittany, and in 1496–1497 in revenge for Scottish improve of Perkin Warbeck and for the Scottish invasion of northern England. Henry VII made peace with France in 1492 and the war in opposition to Scotland was once abandoned as a result of the Western Rebellion of 1497. Henry VII came to peace with James IV in 1502, paving the way for the marriage of his daughter Margaret.[11]

One of the main considerations of Henry VII all over his reign was once the re-accumulation of the price range in the royal treasury. England had never been one of the wealthier European international locations, and after the War of the Roses this used to be even more true. Through his strict financial technique, he used to be in a position to depart a substantial sum of money within the Treasury for his son and successor, Henry VIII. Although it is debated whether Henry VII was once a really perfect king, he undoubtedly was once a a hit one if handiest as a result of he restored the country's price range, strengthened the judicial machine and effectively denied all other claimants to the throne, thus additional securing it for his heir.[12]

Henry VIII

Catherine of Aragon: the Church of England annulled her marriage after she failed to produce a male heir to the Tudor dynasty

The new King Henry VIII succeeded to the throne on 22 April 1509. He married Catherine of Aragon on 11 June 1509; they have been topped at Westminster Abbey on 24 June the same year. Catherine have been the wife of Henry's older brother Arthur (died 1502); this truth made the direction in their marriage a rocky one from the beginning. A papal dispensation needed to be granted for Henry in an effort to marry Catherine, and the negotiations took a while. Despite the truth that Henry's father died prior to he was married to Catherine, he was once made up our minds to marry her anyway and to be sure that everybody knew he meant on being his personal master.

When Henry first got here to the throne, he had very little interest in in truth ruling; quite, he most well-liked to take pleasure in luxuries and to partake in sports activities. He let others keep an eye on the kingdom for the primary two years of his reign, and then when he changed into more inquisitive about military technique, he took more interest in ruling his personal realm.[13] In his more youthful years, Henry was once described as a man of gentle friendliness, delicate in debate, and who acted as extra of a better half than a king. He was once beneficiant in his items and affection and was once said to be easy to get along with. The Henry that many of us picture once they hear his title is the Henry of his later years, when he changed into obese, risky, and used to be identified for his tremendous cruelty.[14]

Catherine didn't endure Henry the sons he was determined for; her first child, a daughter, was stillborn, and her 2nd kid, a son named Henry, Duke of Cornwall, died 52 days after birth. An additional set of stillborn children followed, until a daughter, Mary, was born in 1516. When it changed into transparent to Henry that the Tudor line was at risk, he consulted his chief minister Cardinal Thomas Wolsey about the potential for annulling his marriage to Catherine. Along with Henry's concern that he don't have an inheritor, it was once additionally evident to his court docket that he was once changing into tired of his growing older spouse, who was once six years older than he was. Wolsey visited Rome, the place he was hoping to get the Pope's consent for an annulment. However, the Holy See was reluctant to rescind the sooner papal dispensation and felt heavy drive from Catherine's nephew, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in make stronger of his aunt. Catherine contested the proceedings, and a chronic criminal fight followed. Wolsey fell from favour in 1529 because of his failure to obtain the annulment, and Henry appointed Thomas Cromwell in his position as leader minister c.  1532.

Despite his failure to supply the consequences that Henry wanted, Wolsey actively pursued the annulment (divorce used to be synonymous with annulment at the moment). However, Wolsey never planned that Henry would marry Anne Boleyn, with whom the king had turn into enamoured whilst she served as a lady-in-waiting in Queen Catherine's family. It is unclear how some distance Wolsey was once in truth responsible for the English Reformation, but it is vitally clear that Henry's want to marry Anne Boleyn triggered the schism with Rome. Henry's fear about having an heir to secure his family line and to extend his safety while alive would have induced him to invite for a divorce sooner or later, whether or not Anne had brought about it or now not. Only Wolsey's surprising loss of life at Leicester[15] on 29 November 1530 on his journey to the Tower of London stored him from the general public humiliation and inevitable execution he would have suffered upon his arrival on the Tower.[16]

Break with Rome Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, Henry VIII's leader minister chargeable for the Dissolution of the Monasteries

In order to allow Henry to divorce his wife and marry Anne Boleyn, the English parliament enacted laws breaking ties with Rome, and pointing out the king Supreme Head of the Church of England (from Elizabeth I the monarch is referred to as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England), thus severing the ecclesiastical structure of England from the Catholic Church and the Pope. The newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, used to be then in a position to declare Henry's marriage to Catherine annulled. Catherine was removed from Court, and he or she spent the ultimate 3 years of her life in various English homes below "protectorship", similar to space arrest.[17] This allowed Henry to marry one among his courtiers: Anne Boleyn, the daughter of a minor diplomat Sir Thomas Boleyn. Anne had transform pregnant by means of the top of 1532 and gave beginning on 7 September 1533 to Elizabeth, named in honour of Henry's mom.[18] Anne can have had later pregnancies which led to miscarriage or stillbirth. In May 1536, Anne was once arrested, along with six courtiers. Thomas Cromwell stepped in again, claiming that Anne had taken lovers during her marriage to Henry, and she or he was once attempted for prime treason and incest; these fees had been possibly fabricated, but she was found to blame and achieved in May 1536.

Protestant alliance Henry VIII of England: Henry's quarrels with the Pope resulted in the advent of the Church of England

Henry married again, for the third time, to Jane Seymour, the daughter of a Wiltshire knight, and with whom he had become enamoured whilst she was nonetheless a lady-in-waiting to Queen Anne. Jane turned into pregnant, and in 1537 produced a son, who changed into King Edward VI following Henry's demise in 1547. Jane died of puerperal fever only some days after the delivery, leaving Henry devastated. Cromwell persisted to achieve the king's favour when he designed and driven in the course of the Laws in Wales Acts, uniting England and Wales.

In 1540, Henry married for the fourth time to the daughter of a Protestant German duke, Anne of Cleves, thus forming an alliance with the Protestant German states. Henry was once reluctant to marry once more, particularly to a Protestant, however he was persuaded when the courtroom painter Hans Holbein the Younger showed him a flattering portrait of her. She arrived in England in December 1539, and Henry rode to Rochester to fulfill her on 1 January 1540. Although the historian Gilbert Burnet claimed that Henry known as her a Flanders Mare, there is not any proof that he stated this; in truth, courtroom ambassadors negotiating the wedding praised her good looks. Whatever the instances had been, the marriage failed, and Anne agreed to a relaxed annulment, assumed the title My Lady, the King's Sister, and won a massive divorce agreement, which incorporated Richmond Palace, Hever Castle, and a large number of different estates around the country. Although the wedding made sense in terms of foreign policy, Henry was once still enraged and indignant via the match. Henry selected guilty Cromwell for the failed marriage, and ordered him beheaded on 28 July 1540.[19] Henry saved his phrase and took care of Anne in his final years alive; then again, after his death Anne suffered from excessive financial hardship as a result of Edward VI's councillors refused to offer her any budget and confiscated the homes she were given. She pleaded to her brother to let her go back house, however he best despatched a few brokers who tried to lend a hand in helping her scenario and refused to let her return house. Anne died on 16 July 1557 in Chelsea Manor.[20]

Thomas Cranmer, Henry's first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, liable for the Book of Common Prayer during Edward VI's reign

The fifth marriage was once to the Catholic Catherine Howard, the niece of Thomas Howard, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Catherine was once promoted by way of Norfolk within the hope that she would persuade Henry to restore the Catholic religion in England. Henry called her his "rose without a thorn", however the marriage ended in failure. Henry's fancy with Catherine started sooner than the tip of his marriage with Anne when she was nonetheless a member of Anne's court docket. Catherine was younger and vivacious, however Henry's age made him less susceptible to make use of Catherine in the bed room; fairly, he preferred to appreciate her, which Catherine quickly grew bored with. Catherine, forced into a wedding to an unattractive, obese guy over 30 years her senior, had by no means wanted to marry Henry, and performed an affair with the King's favorite, Thomas Culpeper, while Henry and he or she had been married. During her wondering, Catherine first denied the entirety but sooner or later she was broken down and advised of her infidelity and her pre-nuptial relations with other men. Henry, first enraged, threatened to torture her to loss of life but later changed into conquer with grief and self-pity. She was accused of treason and was once finished on 13 February 1542, destroying the English Catholic holdouts' hopes of a countrywide reconciliation with the Catholic Church. Her execution also marked the end of the Howard family's power within the court docket.[21]

By the time Henry carried out some other Protestant marriage with his final spouse Catherine Parr in 1543, the old Roman Catholic advisers, including the powerful third Duke of Norfolk, had lost all their power and affect. The duke himself used to be nonetheless a committed Catholic, and he was nearly persuaded to arrest Catherine for preaching Lutheran doctrines to Henry whilst she attended his sick well being. However, she controlled to reconcile with the King after vowing that she had handiest argued about faith with him to take his mind off the suffering led to via his ulcerous leg. Her peacemaking also helped reconcile Henry together with his daughters Mary and Elizabeth and fostered a just right relationship between her and the crown prince.

Edward VI: Protestant zeal

Henry died on 28 January 1547. His will had reinstated his daughters through his annulled marriages to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn to the road of succession. Edward, his nine-year-old son by Jane Seymour, succeeded as Edward VI of England. Unfortunately, the younger King's kingdom was once normally in turmoil between nobles who were looking to support their own positions within the kingdom via using the Regency of their favour.[22]

Duke of Somerset's England The name page of Archbishop Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer, 1549

Although Henry had specified a group of guys to act as regents right through Edward's minority, Edward Seymour, Edward's uncle, temporarily seized whole regulate and created himself Duke of Somerset on 15 February 1547. His domination of the Privy Council, the king's maximum senior frame of advisers, was once unchallenged. Somerset aimed to unite England and Scotland by means of marrying Edward to the younger Mary, Queen of Scots, and aimed to forcibly impose the English Reformation at the Church of Scotland. Somerset led a big and properly provided army to Scotland, the place he and the Scottish regent James Hamilton, second Earl of Arran, commanded their armies at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh on 10 September 1547. The English received the battle, and after this Queen Mary of Scotland was once smuggled to France, the place she was once betrothed to the Dauphin, the long run King Francis II of France. Despite Somerset's unhappiness that no Scottish marriage would happen, his victory at Pinkie Cleugh made his position seem unassailable.[23]

Edward VI was taught that he had to lead non secular reform. In 1549, the Crown ordered the publication of the Book of Common Prayer, containing the kinds of worship for day by day and Sunday church products and services. The debatable new e book was not welcomed by either reformers or Catholic conservatives; it was once especially condemned in Devon and Cornwall, the place traditional Catholic loyalty used to be at its most powerful. In Cornwall on the time, many of the other people could simplest discuss the Cornish language, so the uniform English Bibles and church services and products weren't understood through many. This led to the Prayer Book Rebellion, by which groups of Cornish non-conformists amassed round the mayor. The insurrection frightened Somerset, now Lord Protector, and he sent a military to impose a military method to the riot. The rebel hardened the Crown towards Catholics. Fear of Catholicism all in favour of Edward's elder sister, Mary, who was once a pious and religious Catholic. Although called earlier than the Privy Council a number of occasions to renounce her faith and prevent listening to the Catholic Mass, she refused. Edward had a excellent courting along with his sister Elizabeth, who was once a Protestant, albeit a moderate one, however this was once strained when Elizabeth used to be accused of having an affair with the Duke of Somerset's brother, Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, the husband of Henry's last spouse Catherine Parr. Elizabeth was interviewed by means of one of Edward's advisers, and she used to be ultimately found not to be guilty, regardless of pressured confessions from her servants Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry. Thomas Seymour was arrested and beheaded on 20 March 1549.

Problematic succession A small boy with a large mind: Edward VI, desperate for a Protestant succession, modified his father's will to allow Lady Jane Grey to turn out to be queen

Lord Protector Somerset was also shedding favour. After forcibly eliminating Edward VI to Windsor Castle, with the goal of maintaining him hostage, Somerset was once removed from energy via members of the council, led through his leader rival, John Dudley, the primary Earl of Warwick, who created himself Duke of Northumberland shortly after his rise. Northumberland effectively turned into Lord Protector, however he did not use this title, studying from the mistakes his predecessor made. Northumberland was once furiously formidable, and aimed to safe Protestant uniformity while making himself rich with land and cash in the process. He ordered church buildings to be stripped of all traditional Catholic symbolism, resulting in the simplicity regularly noticed in Church of England church buildings lately. A revision of the Book of Common Prayer was revealed in 1552. When Edward VI changed into sick in 1553, his advisers regarded to the conceivable approaching accession of the Catholic Lady Mary, and feared that she would overturn the entire reforms made right through Edward's reign. Perhaps surprisingly, it was the loss of life Edward himself who feared a go back to Catholicism, and wrote a new will repudiating the 1544 will of Henry VIII. This gave the throne to his cousin Lady Jane Grey, the granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary Tudor, who, after the loss of life of Louis XII of France in 1515 had married Henry VIII's favorite Charles Brandon, the primary Duke of Suffolk.

With the dying of Edward VI, the direct male line of the House of Tudor ended.

Jane: The 9 days' queen

The demise Edward VI, beneath the drive of John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, named his cousin Lady Jane Grey his successor because of her fervent Protestant ideals. Edward's reluctance to follow the road of succession, which named his half-sister Mary as subsequent in line, stemmed from his knowledge that Mary, firmly Catholic, would repair England to a Catholic nation. Lady Jane Grey was persistently at court docket after her father used to be made Duke of Suffolk in October 1551.[24] Her mom, Lady Frances Brandon, was the daughter of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, youngest sister of Henry VIII. On 21 May 1553 Jane was married to John Dudley's son, Lord Guildford Dudley. This used to be a political transfer organised by the Duke to be sure that Protestantism stayed the nationwide faith if Jane had been to change into queen. Edward died on 6 July 1553 and fifteen-year-old Jane, who fainted when she heard the inside track, was made queen on 10 July. However, despite the efforts of the Duke of Northumberland and Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, the general public's strengthen was with Princess Mary, the rightful heir in line with Henry VIII's will. On 19 July Suffolk persuaded his daughter to relinquish the throne, which she had by no means wanted, to Mary.[25] Mary's supporters joined her in a triumphal procession to London, accompanied by way of her younger sister Elizabeth. Lady Jane and her father have been arrested for high treason and imprisoned within the Tower of London. Her father was once pardoned, however his participation in Wyatt's rebel ended in his death shortly after. Jane and her husband Lord Guildford had been sentenced to dying and beheaded on 12 February 1554. Jane was simplest sixteen years previous, and the tough method in which her life had been lost for a throne she by no means desired aroused a lot sympathy some of the public.

Mary I: A stricken queen's reign

Mary I of England, who tried to return England to the Roman Catholic Church

Mary quickly introduced her aim to marry the Spanish prince Philip, son of her mother's nephew Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The prospect of a wedding alliance with Spain proved unpopular with the English folks, who have been anxious that Spain would use England as a satellite, involving England in wars without the popular toughen of the folk. Popular discontent grew; a Protestant courtier, Thomas Wyatt the more youthful, led a insurrection towards Mary aiming to depose and replace her with her half-sister Elizabeth. The plot was once found out, and Wyatt's supporters were hunted down and killed. Wyatt himself was tortured, within the hope that he would give proof that Elizabeth was involved in order that Mary can have her completed for treason. Wyatt by no means implicated Elizabeth, and he used to be beheaded. Elizabeth spent her time between other prisons, including the Tower of London.

Mary married Philip at Winchester Cathedral, on 25 July 1554. Philip found her unattractive, and handiest spent a minimal amount of time with her. Despite Mary believing she was pregnant numerous times all over her five-year reign, she by no means reproduced. Devastated that she rarely saw her husband, and anxious that she used to be not bearing an inheritor to Catholic England, Mary was sour. In her decision to restore England to the Catholic faith and to protected her throne from Protestant threats, she had 200–300 Protestants burnt at the stake in the Marian Persecutions between 1555 and 1558. Protestants got here to hate her as "Bloody Mary." Charles Dickens mentioned that "as bloody Queen Mary this woman has become famous, and as Bloody Queen Mary she will ever be remembered with horror and detestation"[26]

Protestants Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley being burned on the stake during Mary's reign

Mary's dream of a new, Catholic Habsburg line used to be finished, and her recognition additional declined when she misplaced the last English house on French soil, Calais, to Francis, Duke of Guise, on 7 January 1558. Mary's reign, however, introduced a brand new coining machine that will be used till the 18th century, and her marriage to Philip II created new trade routes for England. Mary's govt took quite a lot of steps in opposition to reversing the inflation, budgetary deficits, poverty, and industry crisis of her kingdom. She explored the industrial attainable of Russian, African, and Baltic markets, revised the customs device, labored to counter the foreign money debasements of her predecessors, amalgamated several income courts, and reinforced the governing authority of the middling and larger towns.[27] Mary additionally welcomed the primary Russian ambassador to England, developing relations between England and Russia for the first time. Had she lived a bit longer, Catholicism, which she worked so demanding to revive into the world may have taken deeper roots than it did. However, her movements in pursuit of this function arguably spurred on the Protestant reason, in the course of the many martyrs she made. Mary died on 17 November 1558 at the moderately younger age of 42.[28]

Elizabeth I: Age of intrigues and plots

Elizabeth I at her coronation on 15 January 1559

Elizabeth I, who was once staying at Hatfield House on the time of her accession, rode to London to the cheers of both the ruling magnificence and the average other folks.

When Elizabeth got here to the throne, there was a lot apprehension amongst individuals of the council appointed by way of Mary, because many of them (as famous by way of the Spanish ambassador) had participated in several plots against Elizabeth, comparable to her imprisonment in the Tower, looking to drive her to marry a foreign prince and thereby sending her out of the world, or even pushing for her demise.[29] In reaction to their worry, she chose as her chief minister Sir William Cecil, a Protestant, and previous secretary to Lord Protector the Duke of Somerset after which to the Duke of Northumberland. Under Mary, he have been spared, and frequently visited Elizabeth, ostensibly to check her accounts and expenditure. Elizabeth additionally appointed her private favorite, the son of the Duke of Northumberland Lord Robert Dudley, her Master of the Horse, giving him consistent private access to the queen.

Early years

Elizabeth had a long, turbulent trail to the throne. She had numerous issues all over her formative years, one of the vital major ones being after the execution of her mother, Anne Boleyn. When Anne was once beheaded, Henry declared Elizabeth an illegitimate child and she would, subsequently, not have the ability to inherit the throne. After the death of her father, she was once raised by his widow, Catherine Parr and her husband Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley. A scandal arose together with her and the Lord Admiral to which she stood trial. During the examinations, she replied in truth and boldly and all fees were dropped. She used to be an excellent pupil, well-schooled in Latin, French, Italian, and somewhat in Greek, and was once a talented creator.[30][31] She was once supposedly a very professional musician as nicely, in both making a song and enjoying the lute. After the riot of Thomas Wyatt the more youthful, Elizabeth was once imprisoned in the Tower of London. No evidence may well be found that Elizabeth was once involved and she or he was once released and retired to the countryside till the loss of life of her sister, Mary I of England.[32]

Imposing the Church of England

Elizabeth used to be a moderate Protestant; she used to be the daughter of Anne Boleyn, who performed a key function in the English Reformation within the 1520s. She had been introduced up via Blanche Herbert Lady Troy. At her coronation in January 1559, most of the bishops – Catholic, appointed by means of Mary, who had expelled many of the Protestant clergymen when she was queen in 1553 – refused to accomplish the service in English. Eventually, the slightly minor Bishop of Carlisle, Owen Oglethorpe, carried out the ceremony; but if Oglethorpe attempted to perform traditional Catholic portions of the Coronation, Elizabeth got up and left. Following the Coronation, two necessary Acts were handed through parliament: the Act of Uniformity and the Act of Supremacy, establishing the Protestant Church of England and creating Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church of England (Supreme Head, the name used by her father and brother, was once noticed as beside the point for a lady ruler). These acts, identified collectively as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, made it compulsory to attend church products and services each Sunday; and imposed an oath on clergymen and statesmen to recognise the Church of England, the independence of the Church of England from the Catholic Church, and the authority of Elizabeth as Supreme Governor. Elizabeth made it transparent that if they refused the oath the primary time, they would have a second opportunity, after which, if the oath was once not sworn, the offenders could be deprived in their offices and estates.

Pressure to marry Mary, Queen of Scots, who conspired with English nobles to take the English throne for herself

Even though Elizabeth was handiest twenty-five when she got here to the throne, she used to be completely positive of her God-given position to be the queen and of her tasks as the 'handmaiden of the Lord'. She never let anyone problem her authority as queen, even supposing many of us, who felt she was vulnerable and should be married, attempted to take action.[29] The acclaim for Elizabeth used to be extremely top, however her Privy Council, her Parliament and her topics concept that the single queen must take a husband; it was once typically accredited that, as soon as a queen regnant was married, the husband would relieve the woman of the burdens of head of state. Also, with out an heir, the Tudor line would end; the danger of civil war between rival claimants was an opportunity if Elizabeth died childless. Numerous suitors from nearly all European international locations sent ambassadors to English court to place ahead their swimsuit. Risk of loss of life came dangerously close in 1564 when Elizabeth stuck smallpox; when she was once most in peril, she named Robert Dudley as Lord Protector within the event of her demise. After her restoration, she appointed Dudley to the Privy Council and created him Earl of Leicester, within the hope that he would marry Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary rejected him, and instead married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a descendant of Henry VII, giving Mary a more potent claim to the English throne. Although many Catholics were dependable to Elizabeth, many additionally believed that, because Elizabeth used to be declared illegitimate after her folks' marriage used to be annulled, Mary was once the most powerful reputable claimant. Despite this, Elizabeth would no longer name Mary her heir; as she had experienced all over the reign of her predecessor Mary I, the opposition may just flock around the heir if they have been disheartened with Elizabeth's rule.

Pope Pius V, who issued the Papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth and relieving her subjects of their allegiance to her

Numerous threats to the Tudor line occurred right through Elizabeth's reign. In 1569, a group of Earls led through Charles Neville, the sixth Earl of Westmorland, and Thomas Percy, the 7th Earl of Northumberland tried to depose Elizabeth and exchange her with Mary, Queen of Scots. In 1571, the Protestant-turned-Catholic Thomas Howard, the fourth Duke of Norfolk, had plans to marry Mary, Queen of Scots, after which substitute Elizabeth with Mary. The plot, masterminded through Roberto di Ridolfi, used to be found out and Norfolk was once beheaded. The subsequent primary uprising used to be in 1601, when Robert Devereux, the second Earl of Essex, tried to lift the city of London against Elizabeth's government. The town of London proved unwilling to rebel; Essex and most of his co-rebels were done. Threats additionally got here from in a foreign country. In 1570, Pope Pius V issued a Papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, excommunicating Elizabeth, and liberating her topics from their allegiance to her. Elizabeth got here beneath force from Parliament to execute Mary, Queen of Scots, to prevent to any extent further attempts to interchange her; though confronted with several reputable requests, she vacillated over the decision to execute an anointed queen. Finally, she used to be persuaded of Mary's (treasonous) complicity within the plotting against her, and she or he signed the demise warrant in 1586. Mary was executed at Fotheringhay Castle on 8 February 1587, to the outrage of Catholic Europe.

There are many reasons debated as to why Elizabeth by no means married. It was rumoured that she was in love with Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, and that on one in all her summer progresses she had birthed his illegitimate child. This rumour was once just one of the that swirled across the two's long-standing friendship. However, extra important to concentrate on were the disasters that many women, corresponding to Lady Jane Grey, suffered because of being married into the royal family. Her sister Mary's marriage to Philip brought great contempt to the country, for many of her topics despised Spain and Philip and feared that he would try to take whole control. Recalling her father's disdain for Anne of Cleves, Elizabeth also refused to go into right into a overseas fit with a person that she had never noticed sooner than, so that additionally eliminated a large number of suitors.[33]

Last hopes for a Tudor heir

Despite the uncertainty of Elizabeth's – and therefore the Tudors' – hold on England, she by no means married. The closest she got here to marriage was between 1579 and 1581, when she used to be courted via Francis, Duke of Anjou, the son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. Despite Elizabeth's government repeatedly begging her to marry within the early years of her reign, it was once now persuading Elizabeth to not marry the French prince, for his mom, Catherine de' Medici, was suspected of ordering the St Bartholomew's Day bloodbath of tens of thousands of French Protestant Huguenots in 1572. Elizabeth bowed to public feeling towards the marriage, learning from the error her sister made when she married Philip II of Spain, and despatched the Duke of Anjou away. Elizabeth knew that the continuation of the Tudor line was now impossible; she was forty-eight in 1581, and too old to endure youngsters.

The Spanish Armada: Catholic Spain's try to depose Elizabeth and take keep watch over of England

By a long way essentially the most dangerous danger to the Tudor line right through Elizabeth's reign used to be the Spanish Armada of 1588, introduced through Elizabeth's previous suitor Philip II of Spain and commanded through Alonso de Guzmán El Bueno, the 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia. The Spanish invasion fleet outnumbered the English fleet's 22 galleons and 108 armed merchant ships. The Spanish lost, then again, as a result of dangerous climate on the English Channel, deficient making plans and logistics, and the skills of Sir Francis Drake and Charles Howard, the second one Baron Howard of Effingham (later first Earl of Nottingham).

While Elizabeth declined bodily with age, her working of the rustic persevered to learn her folks. In response to famine across England because of unhealthy harvests within the 1590s, Elizabeth introduced the deficient legislation, permitting peasants who were too ill to work a undeniable amount of money from the state. All the cash Elizabeth had borrowed from Parliament in 12 of the 13 parliamentary sessions used to be paid again; by the time of her death, Elizabeth no longer simplest had no money owed, however was once in credit. Elizabeth died childless at Richmond Palace on 24 March 1603. She left at the back of a legacy and monarchy price noting. She had pursued her goals of being effectively endowed with each and every side of ruling her kingdom, and of figuring out everything vital to be an effective monarch. She took part in law, economics, politics and governmental problems both domestic and in another country. Realms that had as soon as been strictly forbidden to the feminine gender had now been ruled by one.

Elizabeth by no means named a successor. However, her leader minister Sir Robert Cecil had corresponded with the Protestant King James VI of Scotland, great-grandson of Margaret Tudor, and James's succession to the English throne used to be unopposed. There has been dialogue over the chosen heir. It has been argued that Elizabeth would have decided on James because she felt responsible about what took place to his mom, her cousin. Whether this is true is unknown for sure, for Elizabeth did her best possible to by no means show emotion nor give in to claims. Elizabeth was robust and hard-headed and saved her primary objective in sight: offering the most efficient for her other folks and proving those wrong who doubted her whilst keeping up a straight composure.

The House of Tudor survives during the feminine line, first with the House of Stuart, which occupied the English throne for lots of the following century, after which the House of Hanover, by means of James' granddaughter Sophia. Queen Elizabeth II is an immediate descendant of Henry VII.

Before and after comparisons

Public interference regarding the Roses dynasties used to be all the time a threat until the seventeenth century Stuart/Bourbon re-alignment occasioned through a chain of events such as the execution of Lady Jane Grey, despite her brother-in-law, Leicester's popularity in Holland, the Rising of the North (by which the old Percy-Neville feud or even anti-Scottish sentiment used to be discarded as a result of religion; Northern England shared the same Avignonese bias because the Scottish court docket, on par with Valois France and Castile, which became the backbone of the Counter-Reformation, with Protestants being solidly anti-Avignonese) and dying of Elizabeth I of England with out youngsters.

The Tudors made no substantial changes of their international coverage from either Lancaster or York, whether or not the alliance used to be with Aragon or Cleves, the executive international enemies continuing as the Auld Alliance, but the Tudors resurrected outdated ecclesiastic arguments once pursued via Henry II of England and his son John of England. Yorkists were tied so much to the old order that Catholic rebellions (such because the Pilgrimage of Grace) and aspirations (exemplified by means of William Allen) had been noticed as proceeding of their reactionary footsteps, when towards the Tudors' reformation policies, despite the fact that the Tudors were not uniformly Protestant consistent with Continental definition—as a substitute have been true to their Lancastrian Beaufort allegiance, within the appointment of Reginald Pole.

The very important difference between the Tudors and their predecessors, is the nationalization and integration of John Wycliffe's concepts to the Church of England, retaining onto the alignment of Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia, during which Anne's Hussite brethren have been in alliance to her husband's Wycliffite countrymen against the Avignon Papacy. The Tudors otherwise rejected or suppressed different spiritual notions, whether or not for the Pope's award of Fidei Defensor or to prevent them from being in the palms of the common laity, who could be swayed by cells of overseas Protestants, with whom they had conversation as Marian exiles, pursuing a strategy of containment which the Lancastrians had executed (after being vilified by means of Wat Tyler), even supposing the phenomenon of "Lollard knights" (like John Oldcastle) had grow to be virtually a national sensation all by itself.

In essence, the Tudors adopted a composite of Lancastrian (the courtroom celebration) and Yorkist (the church party) policies. Henry VIII tried to extend his father's balancing act between the dynasties for opportunistic interventionism within the Italian Wars, which had unlucky penalties for his own marriages and the Papal States; the King furthermore attempted to use similar tactics for the "via media" concept of Anglicanism. An additional parallelism was once effected through turning Ireland into a kingdom and sharing the similar episcopal establishment as England, whilst enlarging England via the annexation of Wales. The progress to Northern/Roses government would thenceforth go across the border into Scotland, in 1603, due not best to the civil warring, but additionally because the Tudors' own line used to be fragile and insecure, looking to reconcile the mortal enemies who had weakened England to the point of having to bow to new pressures, fairly than dictate international relations on English terms.

Rebellions in opposition to the Tudors

The following English rebellions happened in opposition to the House of Tudor:

Yorkist risings against Henry VII (1486–1487)[34]The first was once the Rebellion of the Stafford brothers and Viscount Lovell of 1486, which collapsed without fighting.[35] In 1487, Yorkists led through John, Earl of Lincoln rebelled in fortify of Lambert Simnel, a boy who was claimed to be the Earl of Warwick,[36] son of Edward IV's brother Clarence (who had ultimate been seen as a prisoner in the Tower). The insurrection started in Ireland, the place the historically Yorkist nobility, headed through the tough Gerald, Earl of Kildare, proclaimed Simnel King and provided troops for his invasion of England. The rebel was defeated and Lincoln killed on the Battle of Stoke.[37] Yorkshire Rebellion (1489)[34] — Rioting led via Sir John Egremont used to be suppressed by Thomas, Earl of Surrey but not prior to Henry, Earl of Northumberland used to be killed accumulating taxes for the War in Brittany.[34] Cornish Rebellion (1497)[34] Second Cornish Uprising of 1497 — Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be Richard, the younger of the "Princes in the Tower", landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was quickly captured and carried out in 1499.[38] Rebellions in opposition to Henry VIII The Amicable Grant Rebellion (1525)[34] The Pilgrimage of Grace (1536)[34] Rebellions in opposition to Edward VI's "protectors" The Western Rebellion or Prayer Book Rebellion (1549)[39] Kett's Rebellion (1549)[39] Rebellions against Mary I Wyatt's Rebellion (1554)[39] Rebellions towards Elizabeth I The Rebellion of the Northern Earls (1569)[39] The Essex Rebellion (1601)[39]

Tudor monarchs of England and Ireland

The six Tudor monarchs were:

Portrait Name Birth Accession date Marriages Death Claim Henry VII 28 January 1457Pembroke Castle 22 August 1485(topped at Westminster Abbey on 30 October 1485) Elizabeth of York 21 April 1509Richmond Palaceaged 52 Descent from Edward III of England thru his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort. Henry VIII(first King of Ireland)[α] 28 June 1491Greenwich Palace 21 April 1509(topped at Westminster Abbey on 24 June 1509) (1) Catherine of Aragon(2) Anne Boleyn(3) Jane Seymour(4) Anne of Cleves(5) Catherine Howard(6) Catherine Parr 28 January 1547Palace of Whitehallaged 55 Son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York Edward VI[α] 12 October 1537Hampton Court Palace 28 January 1547(crowned at Westminster Abbey on 20 February 1547) — 6 July 1553Greenwich Palaceaged 15 Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour Jane[α](disputed) 1537Bradgate Park 10 July 1553(never topped) Lord Guildford Dudley 12 February 1554executed at the Tower of Londonaged 16–17 Great granddaughter of Henry VII; granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister, Mary Brandon (née Tudor), Duchess of Suffolk; first-cousin once removed of Edward VI Mary I[α] 18 February 1516Palace of Placentia 19 July 1553(topped at Westminster Abbey on 1 October 1553) Philip II of Spain 17 November 1558St James's Palaceaged 42 Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon; known as "Bloody Mary" for burning Protestants all the way through her reign. Elizabeth I[α] 7 September 1533Greenwich Palace 17 November 1558(topped at Westminster Abbey on 15 January 1559) — 24 March 1603Richmond Palaceaged 69 Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; known as "The Virgin Queen" or "Gloriana" during her reign. ^ a b c d e To the Tudor period belongs the elevation of the English-ruled state in Ireland from a Lordship to a Kingdom (1541) beneath Henry VIII.

Armorial

Before the succession Earlier arms of the Tudors as Welsh noble area. Coat of palms of Edmund Tudor, first Earl of Richmond. As he was once the son of a princess of France and a minor Welsh Squire, the grant of those hands to him via his half-brother Henry VI recognizes his standing as a part of the Lancastrian Royal Family. Arms of Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford.svg Coat of arms as sovereigns Coat of Arms of Henry VII of England (1485–1509) & Henry VIII of England (1509–1547) within the first part of his reign Coat of Arms of Henry VIII (1509–1547) within the later a part of his reign & Edward VI (1547–1553) Coat of Arms of Mary I (1554–1558) impaled with those of her husband, Philip II of Spain Coat of Arms Elizabeth I (1558–1603) together with her private motto: "Semper eadem" or "always the same"

As Prince of Wales, Arthur, Henry, and Edward all bore these palms,

Coat of Arms of the Tudor Princes of Wales (1489–1547) Tudor Badges

The Welsh Dragon supporter honoured the Tudor's Welsh origins. The most well liked image of the house of Tudor was once the Tudor rose (see best of web page). When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he introduced about the finish of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (whose badge was a crimson rose) and the House of York (whose badge was once a white rose). He married Elizabeth of York to carry all factions together. On his marriage, Henry followed the Tudor Rose badge conjoining the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. It symbolized the Tudor's appropriate to rule as nicely the uniting of the dominion after the Wars of the Roses. It was once utilized by each English, then British, monarch since Henry VII as a royal badge.

Royal Roses Badge of England appearing the pink rose of Lancaster, the white rose of York, and the blended Tudor rose. Tudor Rose Royal Badge of England combining the Red Rose of Lancaster and White Rose of York. Tudor Rose Uncrowned Tudor dragon badge symbolizing the Tudor's Welsh heritage and the Welsh union with England. Tudor Portcullis Badge taken from their Beaufort ancestors Crowned Fleur de lys (Tudor Crown) showing the claim to crown of France. Crowned Harp of Ireland (Tudor Crown) showing the Tudors as Kings of Ireland. The harp used to be later quartered into the royal arms. Tudor Monograms

The Tudors extensively utilized monograms to denote themselves:

Royal Monogram of King Henry VIII of England. Royal Monogram of Queen Elizabeth I of England.

Lineage and the Tudor identify

The Tudor Name

As famous above Tewdur or Tudor is derived from the words tud "territory" and rhi "king". Owen Tudor took it as a surname on being knighted. It is in doubt whether or not the Tudor kings used the title at the throne. Kings and princes were not noticed as desiring a reputation, and a " 'Tudor' name for the royal family was hardly known in the sixteenth century. The royal surname was never used in official publications, and hardly in 'histories' of various sorts before 1584. ... Monarchs were not anxious to publicize their descent in the paternal line from a Welsh adventurer, stressing instead continuity with the historic English and French royal families. Their subjects did not think of them as 'Tudors', or of themselves as 'Tudor people'".[40] Princes and Princesses would were referred to as "of England". The medieval observe of colloquially calling princes after their place beginning (e.g. Henry of Bolingbroke for Henry IV or Henry of Monmouth for Henry V) was no longer adopted. Henry VII used to be most probably known as "Henry of Richmond" prior to his taking of the throne. When Richard III called him "Henry Tudor" it was to worry his Welshness and his unfitness for the throne versus himself, "Richard Plantagenet", a "true" descendant of the royal line.

Patrilineal descent vteTudors of Penmynydd Ednyfed Fychand. 1246I[i][ii][iii][iv]Tudur ab EdnyfedGoronwy ab Ednyfedd.1268II[i][ii][iii][iv][v]Tudur Hen(Tudur ap Goronwy)d.1311III[i][ii][iv][v][vi]Goronwy ap Tudur Hend. 1331Tomos ap Llewelyn d.1343IV[i][ii][iv][v][vii][viii]Hywel ap Goronwyd.ca.1367Tudur ap Goronwyd.ca.1367Marged ferch TomosElen ferch Tomos(mother ofOwain Glyndŵr)V[i][ii][iv][vii]Goronwy ap Tudurd.1382Rhys ap Tudurex.1412Ednyfed ap Tudurd. 1382Gwilym ap Tudurd.1413Maredudd ap Tudurd.1406VI[i][iv][vii][ix][x]Gwilym ap Griffith(Griffiths of Penrhyn)Morfydd ferch GoronwyTudur ap Goronwyd.ca.1400Owen Tudor(Owain Tudur)VII[iv][ix][x][xi]Tudur FychanEdmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmondd.1456Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford d.1495Owen TudormonkVIII[i][iv][ix][x][xi]Owain Tudord.1504/5Henry VII of Englandd.1509IX[i][iv][xi]William Owen apTudor FychanJohn Owen apTudor FychanRichard Owen Theodor (I)d.1527(?)Arthurd.1502Henry VIIId.1547X[i][iv]Richard Owen Theodor (II)d.1558(?)William Pritchard(William Bold)Edward VId.1553Mary Id.1558Elizabeth Id.1603XI[i][iv]Richard Owen Theodor (III)David OwenTheodord.1624XII[i][iv]Richard Owen Theodor (IV)fl.1645XIII[i][iv][xi]Richard Owen Theodor (V)fl.1665XIV[i][iv][xi]Richard Owen Theodor (VI)fl.1669Notes: ^ a b c d e f g h i j ok l m .mw-parser-output cite.quotationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .quotation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em heart/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")correct 0.1em middle/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")appropriate 0.1em middle/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:lend a hand.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolour:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errorshow:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintshow:none;colour:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .quotation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritJ. Williams (1869). "Penmynyth and the Tudors". Archaeologia Cambrensis. 15 (3rd ser): 278–294, 379–402. ^ a b c d e Glyn Roberts (1959). "EDNYFED FYCHAN ( EDNYFED ap CYNWRIG ) and his descendants". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. The National Library of Wales. ^ a b Peter Bartrum. "Marchudd 11". Prosiect Bartrum/Bartrum Project. Aberystwyth University. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Glyn Roberts (1959). "Teulu Penwynydd". Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion: 17–37. ^ a b c Peter Bartrum. "Marchudd 12". Prosiect Bartrum/Bartrum Project. Aberystwyth University. ^ Peter Bartrum. "Bleddyn ap Cynfyn 05". Prosiect Bartrum/Bartrum Project. Aberystwyth University. ^ a b c Peter Bartrum. "Marchudd 13". Prosiect Bartrum/Bartrum Project. Aberystwyth University. ^ Peter Bartrum. "Rhys ap Tewdwr 07". Prosiect Bartrum/Bartrum Project. Aberystwyth University. ^ a b c Glyn Roberts (1959). "GRIFFITH OF PENRHYN (Caerns.)". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. The National Library of Wales. ^ a b c Thomas Jones Pierce (1959). "OWAIN TUDOR ( c. 1400 - 1461 )". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. The National Library of Wales. ^ a b c d e Thomas Jones Pierce (1959). "TUDOR family of Penmynydd , Anglesey — later members". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. The National Library of Wales. Royal lineage See additionally: Tudor monarchs' family tree

The Tudors' declare to the throne mixed the Lancastrian claim in their descent from the Beauforts and the Yorkist declare by way of the wedding of Henry VII to the heiress of Edward IV.

Royal Lineage (Simplified) – King of England – House of Lancaster – House of York – House of Tudor – Tudor king or queen of England – Scottish Royal Family Edward III1327–1377Edward,the Black Prince(1st son)Blanche ofLancasterJohn of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster(third son)KatherineSwynfordLionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence(second son)Edmund of Langley1st Duke of York(4th son)Richard IIof England1377–1399Henry IVof England1399–1413Charles VIof FranceMareduddap TudurJohn Beaufort 1st Earl of SomersetPhilippa fifth Countess of UlsterHenry Vof England1413–1422Catherine of ValoisOwen TudorJohn Beaufort1st Duke ofSomersetRogerMortimer4th Earlof MarchEdmundMortimerfifth Earlof MarchHenry VIof England1422–1461 1470–1471Edmund Tudor1st Earl of RichmondMargaret Beaufort Countess of RichmondAnne de MortimerRichard 3rd Earl of Cambridge(2nd son)Edward2nd Duke ofYork(1st son)Edwardof WestminsterPr. of WalesRichard 3rd Duke of YorkEdward IVof England1461–14701471–1483Richard IIIof England1483–1485George1st Duke of ClarenceIsabella I of CastileFerdinand II of AragonHenry VIIof England1485–1509Elizabeth of YorkEdward Vof England1483RichardDukeof YorkEdward of MiddlehamPr. of WalesMargaret PoleCountess ofSalisburyJoanna of CastileMaria of AragonCatherine of AragonHenry VIIIof England1509–1547(second son)Arthur Pr. of Wales(1st son)Margaret TudorMary TudorReginald PoleCharles V Holy Roman EmperorIsabella of PortugalMary Iof England1553–1558Elizabeth Iof England1558–1603Edward VIof England1547–1553James V of ScotlandLady Frances BrandonPhilip II of SpainMary Queen of ScotsLady Jane GreyJames VI of Scotland and I of England1603–1625

In popular culture

Numerous characteristic movies are in line with Tudor historical past.[41][42] Queen Elizabeth has been in particular favourite for filmmakers for generations. According to Elizabeth A. Ford and Deborah C. Mitchell, photographs of Elizabeth I move:

fast-forward throughout movie historical past, unforgettable, iconic images: the stately bearing; the purple wigs; the prime forehead; the long, aristocratic nose; the alabaster makeup; the pearl-drop earrings; the stiff, ornate ruffs; the hands dripping with jewels; and the robes, with yards and yards of white satin, pink velvet, gold, and silver ornamented and glowing with rubies, diamonds, and extra pearls. Even a schoolchild would be hard-pressed to mistake her for some other monarch.[43]The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (1939), film starring Bette Davis, Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland A Man for All Seasons, a play by way of Robert Bolt produced for radio, television and stage which premiered in 1960 A Man for All Seasons (1966 film) A Man for All Seasons (1988 film) Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), British dress drama Elizabeth R (1971), BBC tv drama serial Elizabeth (1998), movie starring Cate Blanchett Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007), sequel The Other Boleyn Girl (2001), a historic novel through Philippa Gregory, according to Mary Boleyn, the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn The Other Boleyn Girl (2003 movie) The Other Boleyn Girl (2008 film) Henry VIII (2003), a two-part British tv serial starring Ray Winstone Elizabeth I (2005), television drama The Virgin Queen (2005), a BBC and Power co-production, four-part miniseries based totally upon the life of Queen Elizabeth I, starring Anne-Marie Duff The Tudors (2007–2010), a British-/Irish-/Canadian-produced historical fiction tv series loosely based upon the reign of Henry VIII. The King's Daughter: A Novel of the First Tudor Queen (2008), by means of Sandra Worth, chronicles the origins of Tudor rule. The White Princess (2017), an eight-episode collection produced by way of Starz according to the novel by way of Philippa Gregory, which facilities on the early reign of Henry VII and his Queen Elizabeth of York after his victory at the Battle of Bosworth, and the start of the Tudor length. Horrible Histories: Terrible Tudors[44] The 2017 musical Six is encouraged by way of the stories of Henry VIII's six wives. The 50-year special episode of Doctor Who "The Day of the Doctor" options Elizabeth I as one in all secondary characters.

See additionally

England and Wales Elizabethan era Mid-Tudor Crisis Richmond Castle Tudor structure Tudor conquest of Ireland Tudor navy Tudor Revival architecture

Notes

^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/608456/House-of-Tudor House of Tudor. 2010. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 March 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online ^ "History explorer: Stephen and Matilda's fight for the throne". HistoryExtra. Retrieved 15 May 2020. ^ Alchin, Linda. "Lords and Ladies". King Henry II. Lords and Ladies, n.d. Web. 6 February 2014. http://www.lordsandladies.org/king-henry-ii.htm. ^ Barrow, Mandy. "Timeline of the Kings and Queens of England: The Plantagenets". Project Britain: British Life and Culture. Mandy Barrow, n.d. Web. 6 February 2014. http://projectbritain.com/monarchy/angevins.html. ^ Needham, Mark. "Family tree of Henry (II, King of England 1154–1189)". TimeRef.com. TimeRef.com, n.d. Web. 6 February 2014. http://www.timeref.com/tree68.htm. ^ "Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 27 January 2020. ^ Zimmer, Stefan (2006). "Some Names and Epithets in "Culhwch ac Olwen"". Studi Celtici. 3: 163–179. Retrieved 13 January 2016. (See p. 11, n. 34 within the online version.) ^ a b "History – Wales under the Tudors". BBC. Retrieved 17 October 2013. ^ a b Griffith, Ralph A. and Roger Thomas . The Making of the Tudor Dynasty (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985) , 33. ^ Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Henry VII. p. 25. ^ a b Kinney p. 335 ^ "Henry VII". Tudorhistory.org. 5 February 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2013. ^ "The Life of King Henry VIII (1491–1547). Biography of Henry Tudor, King of England". Luminarium.org. Retrieved 17 October 2013. ^ Lipscomb, Suzannah (2009). "Who was Henry?". History Today. 59 (4): 14–20. Popular perceptions of Henry VIII, in keeping with focal point groups consulted by way of the market research company BDRC for Historic Royal palaces, are that he used to be a fats man who had six, or perhaps 8 other halves, and that he killed numerous them. ^ "Leicester City Council – History of the Abbey; Cardinal Wolsey". 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2012. ^ Smith, p. 18-21 ^ Tittler p. 37 ^ Tittler p. 36 ^ Loades p. 4 ^ Warnicke, Retha (2005). "Anne of Cleves, Queen of England". History Review (51): 39–40. ^ Loades, p. 4-8 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the unique on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.CS1 maint: archived replica as identify (hyperlink) ^ Mackie, The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558 (1952) pp. 480–85 ^ Morrill, John S. “Lady Jane Grey.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 8 Feb. 2020, www.britannica.com/biography/Lady-Jane-Grey. ^ Editors, History.com. “Lady Jane Grey Deposed as Queen of England.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Feb. 2010, www.historical past.com/this-day-in-history/lady-jane-grey-deposed. ^ Garvin p. 185 ^ Kinney p. 471 ^ Castor, Helen (2010). "Exception to the Rule". History Today. 60 (10): 37–43. ^ a b Jones, Norman (2008). "Advice to Elizabeth". History Today. 58 (11): 14–20. ^ "Poet: Queen Elizabeth I – All poems of Queen Elizabeth I". Poemhunter.com. Retrieved 17 October 2013. ^ "Queen Elizabeth I". The Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 17 October 2013. ^ Garvin, 255–256 ^ Warnicke, Retha (2010). "Why Elizabeth I Never Married". History Review (67): 15–20. ^ a b c d e f O'Day 2012, p. 27. ^ Chrimes 1999, p. 69. ^ Chrimes 1999, p. 72. ^ Williams 1973, p. 62. ^ Chrimes 1999, pp. 69–70. ^ a b c d e O'Day 2012, p. 28. ^ Davies, C.S.L. (25 January 2012). "Tudor: What's in a Name?". History. 97 (325): 24–42. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2011.00540.x. The 'Tudor' name for the royal family used to be infrequently identified within the sixteenth century. The nearly obsessive use of the time period via historians is subsequently profoundly deceptive about how English people of the time thought of themselves and in their international, the more so given the overtones of glamour related to it. The royal surname was never used in legit publications, and rarely in 'histories' of quite a lot of varieties prior to 1584. Monarchs were not apprehensive to publicize their descent in the paternal line from a Welsh adventurer, stressing instead continuity with the ancient English and French royal households. Their topics didn't bring to mind them as 'Tudors', or of themselves as 'Tudor people'. Modern ideas reminiscent of 'Tudor monarchy' are deceptive in suggesting a false harmony over the century. Subjects did not establish with their rulers in the way in which 'Tudor other people' suggests. Nor did they situate themselves in a definite 'Tudor' length of history, differentiated from a hypothetical 'heart ages'. While 'Tudor' turns out to be useful historian's shorthand we will have to use the word sparingly and above all shed light on to readers that it was no longer a contemporary thought. ^ For an annotated list see John A. Wagner; Susan Walters Schmid (2012). Encyclopedia of Tudor England. ABC-CLIO. p. 1237ff. ISBN 9781598842982. ^ Sarah Bruce, The Henry VIII of England Handbook - Everything You Need To Know About Henry VIII of England (2016) pp 119, 133, 152, 190-91. ^ Elizabeth A. Ford and Deborah C. Mitchell, Royal Portraits in Hollywood: Filming the Lives of Queens (2009) pp 226–94 and see pp 126–56 For Mary Queen of Scots. ^ Terry Deary, Horrible Histories: Terrible Tudors (Scholastic Australia, 2012).

References

Chrimes, Stanley B. (1999) [1972], Henry VII, New Haven: Yale University Press, second ed., ISBN 978-0-520-02266-9 Guy, John (ed). The Tudor Monarchy. St Martin’s Press, 1997. Jones, Michael Okay. and Malcolm G. Underwood, "Beaufort, Margaret , countess of Richmond and Derby (1443–1509)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed 27 August 2007. O'Day, Rosemary (2012), The Routledge Companion to the Tudor Age, Routledge, pp. 27–28, ISBN 978-1-136-96253-0 Thomas, R. S. "Tudor, Edmund, first earl of Richmond (c.1430–1456)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed 27 August 2007. Turton, Godfrey. The Dragon’s Breed: The Story of the Tudors from Earliest Times to 1603. Peter Davies, 1970. The Wars of the Roses : peace and struggle in fifteenth-century England This realm of England, 1399 to 1688 OCLC 24849088 Williams, Neville (1973), The Life and Times of Henry VII, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 62, ISBN 978-0-297-76517-2

Further studying

Amin, Nathen. The House of Beaufort: The Bastard Line that Captured the Crown (2017) Black, J. B. The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558-1603 (second ed. 1958) survey via main pupil Questia edition; online Bridgen, Susan (2001). New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485–1603. Cunningham, Sean. Henry VII (2007) de Lisle, Leanda : 'Tudor: The Family Story 1437–1603' (2013) Fraser, Antonia. The Wives of Henry VIII (1992) Guy, John. The Tudors: A Very Short Introduction (2010) Guy, John. Tudor England (1990) Guy, John. The Children of Henry VIII (Oxford University Press; 2013) 258 pages; lines the lives of Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I, and Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond. Kinney, Arthur F. and David W. Swain. Tudor England: An Encyclopedia. Garland, 2001. ISBN 0-8153-0793-4. Levine, Mortimer. Tudor England 1485–1603 (Cambridge University Press: 1968) Levine, Mortimer. Tudor Dynastic Problems 1460–1571 (Allen & Unwin: 1973) Loades, David M. The Reign of Mary Tudor: Politics, Government & Religion in England, 1553–58 (1991) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I (1993) Mackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558 (1952), detailed scholarly survey Neale, J. E. Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography (1934), classic scholarly biography online Ridley, Jasper. Henry VIII (1985), common biography on-line Ridley, Jasper. Elizabeth I : the shrewdness of distinctive feature (1989) fashionable biography; on-line Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968) online Skidmore, Chris, Bosworth: the Birth of the Tudors, (2013) Weir, Alison. The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1991) on-line White, Max Abraham. The Tudors: From Henry VII To Elizabeth I (A2 History Revision) (2018). ISBN 978-1720833017

External hyperlinks

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After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań vteEnglish Lord High Treasurers beneath the House of Tudor (1485–1603)Henry VII(1485–1509) 1st Baron Dynham (1486–1501) 2d Duke of Norfolk (1501–1509)Henry VIII(1509–1547) 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1509–1522) third Duke of Norfolk (1522–1546)Edward VI(1547–1553) 1st Duke of Somerset (1547–1549) 1st Marquess of Winchester (1550–1553)Lady Jane Grey(July 1553) 1st Marquess of Winchester (July 1553)Mary I(July 1553–1558) 1st Marquess of Winchester (July 1553–1558)Elizabeth I(1558–1603) 1st Marquess of Winchester (1558–1572) 1st Baron Burghley (1572–1598) 1st Earl of Dorset (1599–1603) vteChancellors of the Exchequer beneath the House of Tudor (1485–1603)Henry VII(1485–1509) Thomas Lovell (1485–1509)Henry VIII(1509–1547) Thomas Lovell (1509–1524) 2d Baron Berners (1524–1533) Thomas Cromwell (1533–1540) John Baker (1545–1547)Edward VI(1547–July 1553) John Baker (1545–July 1553)Lady Jane Grey(July 1553) John Baker (July 1553)Mary I(July 1553–1558) John Baker (July 1553–1558)Elizabeth I(1558–1603) Richard Sackville (1559–1566) Walter Mildmay (1566–1589) John Fortescue of Salden (1589–1603) vteMasters of the Royal Mint (1331–1879)House of Plantagenet(1216–1399) Richard de Snowshill/Richard of Grimsby (1331) Henry de Bruselee and John Chichester (1351–?) Walter dei Bardi (1361–1361) John Chichester (1365–1367) Walter dei Bardi (1375–1391) John Wildeman (1391–1391)Houses of Lancaster and York(1399–1485) Richard Garner (1411–1414) Sir Lewis John (1413–1414) Sir Lewis John (1418–1420) Bartholomew Goldbeter (1421–1432) John Paddesley (1435–1446) Robert Manfield (1446–1459) Sir Richard Tonstall (1459–1461) William Hastings (1461–April 1483) Sir Robert Brackenbury (April–June 1483) Sir Robert Brackenbury (June 1483–1485)House of Tudor(1485–1603) Sir Giles Daubeney (1485–1490) Sir Bartholomew Reed and Robert Fenrother (1492–1498) 4th Baron Mountjoy (1509–1534) Ralph Rowlet/Sir Martin Bowes (1543) Sir Martin Bowes (1544) Sir John York (1547–1553) Thomas Egerton (1553–1555) Sir Thomas Stanley (1560–1571) John Lonyson (1571–1582) Sir Richard Martin (1582–1603)House of Stuart(1603–1649) Sir Richard Martin (1603–1609) Sir Edward Villiers (1617–1623) Sir Randal Cranfield (1623–1626) Sir Robert Harley (1626–1635) Sir Ralph Freeman/Sir Thomas Aylesbury (1635–1643) Sir Robert Harley (1643–1649)Interregnum(1649–1660) Aaron Guerdon (1649–1653)House of Stuart(1660–1714) Sir Ralph Freeman (1660–1662) Sir Ralph Freeman/Henry Slingsby (1662–1667) Henry Slingsby (1667–1680) Sir John Buckworth/Charles Duncombe/James Hoare (1680–1684) Thomas Neale/Charles Duncombe/James Hoare (1684–1686) Thomas Neale (1686–1699) Sir Isaac Newton (1700–1714)House of Hanover(1714–1901) Sir Isaac Newton (1714–1727) John Conduitt (1727–1737) Hon. Richard Arundell (1737–1745) third Viscount Chetwynd (1745–1769) 1st Earl Cadogan (1769–1784) third Earl of Effingham (1784–1789) fifth Earl of Chesterfield (1789–1790) 2d Marquess Townshend (1790–1794) Sir George Yonge (1794–1799) 2nd Earl of Liverpool (1799–1801) second Baron Arden (1801–1802) John Smyth (1802–1804) 3rd Earl Bathurst (1804–1806) Lord Charles Spencer (1806) Charles Bathurst (1806–1807) third Earl Bathurst (1807–1812) second Earl of Clancarty (1812–1814) 3rd Earl of Mornington (1814–1823) 1st Baron Wallace (1823–1827) George Tierney (1827–1828) John Charles Herries (1828–1830) 1st Earl of Auckland (1830–1834) 1st Baron Dunfermline (1834–1835) 1st Baron Ashburton (1835) 1st Baron Taunton (1835–1841) William Ewart Gladstone (1841–1845) Sir George Clerk (1845–1846) Richard Lalor Sheil (1846–1850) Sir John Herschel (1850–1855) Thomas Graham (1855–1869) Vacant (1869–1879)Office abolished in 1879 with tasks given to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Authority control GND: 118763121 LCCN: sh96003830 LNB: 000071530 NKC: jx20060403099 VIAF: 37712007, 4075155832944733490005, 305068422 WorldCat Identities: viaf-37712007 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_of_Tudor&oldid=1020919282"

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