American Th

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The american (2010) - IMDb

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The american (2010) - IMDb

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United States

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"America", "US", and "USA" redirect right here. For the continents, see Americas. For other uses, see America (disambiguation), US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation).

Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitudewhite-space:nowrap40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W

United States of America Flag Coat of fingers Motto: "In God We Trust"[1] Other traditional mottos: "E pluribus unum" (Latin)[2]"Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin)[2]"Providence favors our undertakings" "Novus ordo seclorum" (Latin)[2]"New order of the ages" Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"[3]March: "The Stars and Stripes Forever"[4][5]Great Seal:[2] CapitalWashington, D.C.38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°WLargest metropolisNew York City40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°WOfficial languagesNone at the federal point[a]National languageEnglishEthnic groups (2019)[8]By race: 76.3% White 13.4% Black 5.9% Asian 2.8% Multiracial 1.3% Native American 0.2% Pacific Islander By ethnicity: 81.5% Non-Hispanic or Latino 18.5% Hispanic or LatinoReligion See Religion in the United StatesDemonym(s)American[b][9]GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic• President Joe Biden (D)• Vice President Kamala Harris (D)• House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D)• Chief Justice John RobertsLegislatureCongress• Upper areaSenate• Lower spaceHouse of RepresentativesIndependence from Great Britain• Declaration July 4, 1776• Confederation March 1, 1781• Treaty of Paris September 3, 1783• Constitution June 21, 1788• Bill of Rights September 25, 1789• Last state admitted August 21, 1959• Last modification May 5, 1992Area • Total area3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[c][10] (third/4th)• Water (%)4.66 (as of 2015)[11]• Total land area3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2) PPopulation• 2020 census331,449,281[d][12] (3rd)• Density87/sq mi (33.6/km2) (146th)GDP (PPP)2020 estimate• Total.807 trillion[13] (2nd)• Per capita ,051[13] (seventh)GDP (nominal)2020 estimate• Total.807 trillion[13] (1st)• Per capita ,051[13] (5th)Gini (2020) 48.5[14]highHDI (2019) 0.926[15]very excessive · seventeenthCurrencyUnited States buck ($) (USD)Time zoneUTC−Four to −12, +10, +11• Summer (DST)UTC−Four to −10[e]Date layout mm/dd/yyyy yyyy-mm-ddMains electricity120 V–60 HzDriving sideright[f]Calling code+1ISO 3166 codeUSInternet TLD Generic top-level domain [16].com, .org, .web, .edu, .gov, .mil ccTLD (typically now not used within the U.S.) .us, .pr, .as, .gu, .mp, .vi and, formerly, .um (got rid of through ICANN in 2008, but nonetheless known by way of the U.S. authorities as a ccTLD)

The United States of America (USA), regularly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country basically located in North America. It is composed of fifty states, a federal district, 5 primary self-governing territories, 326 Indian reservations, and a few minor possessions.[g] At 3.8 million sq. miles (9.8 million sq. kilometers), it's the global's third- or fourth-largest country by way of total space.[c] With a inhabitants of greater than 331 million folks, it's the third most populous nation on the planet. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and essentially the most populous metropolis is New York City.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago, and European colonization began within the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established alongside the East Coast. Disputes over taxation and political representation with Great Britain resulted in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), which established independence. In the overdue 18th century, the U.S. started vigorously increasing throughout North America, step by step acquiring new territories, often displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states; via 1848, the United States spanned the continent. Slavery was legal in the southern United States until the second one half of of the Nineteenth century when the American Civil War led to its abolition. The Spanish–American War and World War I established the U.S. as an international chronic, a status showed via the end result of World War II.

During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in more than a few proxy wars but avoided direct army battle. They additionally competed within the Space Race, culminating in the 1969 spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991 ended the Cold War, leaving the United States as the arena's sole superpower.

The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy with three separate branches of presidency, together with a bicameral legislature. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, and different global organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Considered a melting pot of cultures and ethnicities, its inhabitants has been profoundly shaped by way of centuries of immigration. The U.S. ranks high in global measures of economic freedom, lowered levels of perceived corruption, high quality of existence, high quality of higher education, and human rights. However, the country has gained criticism in regard to inequality associated with race, wealth and income, using capital punishment, high incarceration charges, and lack of common health care.

The United States is a extremely evolved country, and steadily ranks excessive in measures of socioeconomic performance. It accounts for approximately 1 / 4 of worldwide GDP and is the world's greatest economy by GDP at marketplace change charges. By value, the United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of products. Although its inhabitants is simplest 4.2% of the sector general, it holds 29.4% of the overall wealth on the earth, the biggest share held by means of any nation. Making up greater than a 3rd of world military spending, it's the main military continual on this planet and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific power the world over.[20]


See additionally: Naming of the Americas, Names of the United States, Names for United States voters, and American (word)

The first known use of the identify "America" dates back to 1507, when it gave the impression on an international map created by way of the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. On his map, the identify is shown in broad letters on what would now be thought to be South America, in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. The Italian explorer was the first to postulate that the West Indies didn't represent Asia's jap prohibit but were a part of a prior to now unknown landmass.[21][22] In 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the identify "America" on his own world map, applying it to all of the Western Hemisphere.[23]

The first documentary proof of the word "United States of America" dates from a January 2, 1776 letter written via Stephen Moylan to George Washington's aide-de-camp Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to cross "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to hunt help in the revolutionary warfare effort.[24][25][26] The first recognized e-newsletter of the word "United States of America" used to be in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[27]

The moment draft of the Articles of Confederation, ready by way of John Dickinson and finished no later than June 17, 1776, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'."[28] The final version of the Articles, sent to the states for ratification in past due 1777, mentioned that "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'."[29] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters within the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[28] This draft of the file did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was once written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[28]

The quick shape "United States" may be standard. Other commonplace forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name common in American poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its foundation from Christopher Columbus; it sounds as if within the identify "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions within the Western Hemisphere undergo his identify, including the country of Colombia.

The phrase "United States" used to be in the beginning plural in American utilization. It described a selection of states—e.g., "the United States are." The singular form become widespread after the end of the Civil War and is now usual usage within the U.S. A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." confer with the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" hardly ever refers to subjects or topics indirectly connected with the United States.[30]


Main articles: History of the United States and Outline of United States historical past Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans within the United States, Prehistory of the United States, and Pre-Columbian technology The Cliff Palace, constructed through the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260

It has been usually authorised that the 1st population of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived no less than 12,000 years in the past; on the other hand, some evidence suggests an excellent previous date of arrival.[31][32][33] The Clovis culture, which seemed round 11,000 BC, is believed to constitute the 1st wave of human settlement of the Americas.[34][35] This used to be most probably the 1st of 3 primary waves of migration into North America; later waves introduced the ancestors of present-day Athabaskans, Aleuts, and Eskimos.[36]

Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complicated, and some, such because the pre-Columbian Mississippian tradition within the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, architecture, and complicated societies.[37] The city-state of Cahokia is the biggest, most intricate pre-Columbian archaeological website in the modern-day United States.[38] In the Four Corners area, Ancestral Puebloan culture advanced from centuries of agricultural experimentation.[39] The Haudenosaunee, positioned in the southern Great Lakes area, was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[40] Most prominent along the Atlantic coast had been the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, together with limited cultivation.

Estimating the native inhabitants of North America on the time of European touch is tricky.[41][42]Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution estimated that there was a inhabitants of 92,916 within the south Atlantic states and a inhabitants of 473,616 in the Gulf states,[43] however most academics regard this figure as too low.[41]Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were a lot upper, suggesting around 1.1 million alongside the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, 2.2 million other folks dwelling between Florida and Massachusetts, 5.2 million in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries, and around 700,000 folks in the Florida peninsula.[41][42]

European settlements Further data: Colonial historical past of the United States and Thirteen Colonies

Claims of very early colonization of coastal New England by means of the Norse are disputed and arguable. The first documented arrival of Europeans in the continental United States is that of Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first expedition to Florida in 1513. Even earlier, Christopher Columbus had landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage, and San Juan was settled by means of the Spanish a decade later.[44] The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico, such as Saint Augustine, often thought to be the nation's oldest city,[45] and Santa Fe. The French established their very own settlements alongside the Mississippi River, particularly New Orleans.[46] Successful English settlement of the japanese coast of North America started with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and with the Pilgrims colony at Plymouth in 1620.[47][48] The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses, was once founded in 1619. Documents such because the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut established precedents for representative self-government and constitutionalism that may broaden all the way through the American colonies.[49][50] Many settlers have been dissenting Christians who got here seeking spiritual freedom. In 1784, the Russians have been the first Europeans to determine a settlement in Alaska, at Three Saints Bay. Russian America as soon as spanned much of the present-day state of Alaska.[51]

In the early days of colonization, many European settlers have been matter to meals shortages, disease, and assaults from Native Americans. Native Americans had been also regularly at war with neighboring tribes and European settlers. In many cases, then again, the natives and settlers got here to rely on one another. Settlers traded for meals and animal pelts; natives for weapons, gear and other European items.[52] Natives taught many settlers to domesticate corn, beans, and other foodstuffs. European missionaries and others felt it was necessary to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural practices and lifestyles.[53][54] However, with the higher European colonization of North America, the Native Americans had been displaced and steadily killed.[55] The native population of America declined after European arrival for more than a few causes,[56][57][58] basically illnesses reminiscent of smallpox and measles.[59][60]

The authentic Thirteen Colonies (proven in red) in 1775

European settlers additionally started trafficking of African slaves into Colonial America by way of the transatlantic slave business.[61] Because of a decrease incidence of tropical sicknesses and better treatment, slaves had a far upper life expectancy in North America than in South America, resulting in a fast building up in their numbers.[62][63] Colonial society used to be largely divided over the non secular and moral implications of slavery, and a number of other colonies passed acts both towards and in choose of the practice.[64][65] However, by the flip of the 18th century, African slaves had supplanted European indentured servants as money crop exertions, particularly within the American South.[66]

The Thirteen Colonies (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) that will turn into the United States of America were administered via the British as in another country dependencies.[67] All nevertheless had local governments with elections open to most unfastened men.[68] With extremely high delivery rates, low death charges, and steady agreement, the colonial inhabitants grew impulsively, eclipsing Native American populations.[69] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s referred to as the Great Awakening fueled pastime both in religion and in non secular liberty.[70]

During the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), identified within the U.S. as the French and Indian War, British forces captured Canada from the French. With the introduction of the Province of Quebec, Canada's francophone inhabitants would stay remoted from the English-speaking colonial dependencies of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Thirteen Colonies. Excluding the Native Americans who lived there, the Thirteen Colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, a few third that of Britain. Despite proceeding new arrivals, the rate of herbal building up was such that by means of the 1770s only a small minority of Americans were born out of the country.[71] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, however their remarkable success motivated British monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[72]

Independence and growth Further data: American Revolution and Territorial evolution of the United States Declaration of Independence, portray by John Trumbull, depicts the Committee of Five presenting their draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress, July 4, 1776

The American Revolutionary War fought via the Thirteen Colonies towards the British Empire used to be the first a success war of independence by a non-European entity in opposition to a European continual. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism", asserting that authorities rested at the will of the folk as expressed in their native legislatures. They demanded their "rights as Englishmen" and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the struggle escalated into conflict.[73]

The Second Continental Congress unanimously followed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776; at the moment is widely known every year as Independence Day.[74] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[74]

After its defeat at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, Britain signed a peace treaty. American sovereignty turned into the world over known, and the country was once granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Tensions with Britain remained, on the other hand, leading to the War of 1812, which was fought to a draw.[75] Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal authorities used to be reorganized into three branches in 1789, at the theory of creating salutary tests and balances. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the 1st president elected under the new charter. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of private freedoms and guaranteeing a variety of criminal protections, used to be followed in 1791.[76]

Territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917

Although the government outlawed American participation within the Atlantic slave industry in 1807, after 1820, cultivation of the extremely profitable cotton crop exploded within the Deep South, and in conjunction with it, the slave inhabitants.[77][78][79] The Second Great Awakening, particularly within the period 1800–1840, converted hundreds of thousands to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized more than one social reform movements, including abolitionism;[80] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[81]

Beginning within the overdue 18th century, American settlers began to increase westward,[82] prompting a protracted series of American Indian Wars.[83] The 1803 Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the country's area,[84]Spain ceded Florida and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819,[85] the Republic of Texas was annexed in 1845 all over a length of expansionism,[86] and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. regulate of the present-day American Northwest.[87] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and far of the present-day American Southwest, making the U.S. span the continent.[82][88]

The California Gold Rush of 1848–Forty nine spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which resulted in the California Genocide[89] and the advent of extra western states.[90] The giving for free of huge quantities of land to white European settlers as a part of the Homestead Acts, just about 10% of the full house of the United States, and to personal railroad firms and colleges as a part of land grants spurred economic development.[91] After the Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded inside industry, and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[92] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native Americans from abuses, steer clear of further battle, and protected their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued all through the West into the 1900s.

Civil War and Reconstruction era Main articles: American Civil War and Reconstruction technology The Battle of Gettysburg, fought between Union and Confederate forces on July 1–3, 1863, across the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, marked a turning level in the American Civil War.

Irreconcilable sectional struggle in regards to the enslavement of Africans and African Americans in the long run ended in the American Civil War.[93] With the 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, conventions in 13 slave states declared secession and shaped the Confederate States of America (the "South" or the "Confederacy"), whilst the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession used to be illegal.[94] In order to bring about this secession, military motion used to be initiated through the secessionists, and the Union replied in sort. The ensuing warfare would change into the deadliest army struggle in American historical past, ensuing in the deaths of approximately 618,000 infantrymen in addition to many civilians.[95] The Union initially merely fought to stay the rustic united. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the primary function of the war from the Union's viewpoint changed into the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union in the long run gained the conflict in April 1865, each of the states within the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery apart from as penal exertions. Two different amendments have been additionally ratified, making sure citizenship for blacks and, at least in principle, voting rights for them as neatly.

Reconstruction started in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865 drove a wedge between North and South once more. Republicans in the federal authorities made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to verify the rights of African Americans. They persevered until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South to ensure that Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.

Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the tip of Reconstruction, beginning the nadir of American race members of the family. From 1890 to 1910, the Redeemers established so-called Jim Crow laws, disenfranchising most blacks and a few deficient whites during the area. Blacks faced racial segregation, particularly within the South.[96] They additionally infrequently skilled vigilante violence, together with lynching.[97]

Further immigration, enlargement, and industrialization Main articles: Economic historical past of the United States and Technological and business historical past of the United States Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, used to be a big access point for European immigration into the U.S.[98]

In the North, urbanization and an exceptional inflow of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe equipped a surplus of work for the rustic's industrialization and remodeled its culture.[99] National infrastructure, including telegraph and transcontinental railroads, spurred financial growth and bigger settlement and building of the American Old West. The later invention of electric mild and the telephone would additionally impact verbal exchange and urban life.[100]

The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to no less than 1890.[101] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and their confinement to Indian reservations. Additionally, the Trail of Tears within the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal coverage that forcibly resettled Indians. This further expanded acreage beneath mechanical cultivation, expanding surpluses for world markets.[102] Mainland expansion additionally incorporated the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[103] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines had been ceded by way of Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[104]American Samoa was once obtained by means of the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[105] The U.S. Virgin Islands had been bought from Denmark in 1917.[106]

Rapid financial building all the way through the past due 19th and early Twentieth centuries fostered the upward push of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the country's growth in the railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking turned into a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. The American economy boomed, changing into the arena's biggest.[107] These dramatic changes had been accompanied by social unrest and the upward push of populist, socialist, and anarchist actions.[108] This duration eventually ended with the arrival of the Progressive Era, which saw vital reforms together with ladies's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, legislation of client goods, and greater antitrust measures to make sure competition and a focus to worker prerequisites.[109][110][111]

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II The Empire State Building was once the tallest construction on the earth when completed in 1931, all the way through the Great Depression.

The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power" along the Allies of World War I, serving to to show the tide in opposition to the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a number one diplomatic role on the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to sign up for the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[112]

In 1920, the ladies's rights movement won passage of a constitutional modification granting ladies's suffrage.[113] The 1920s and 1930s saw the upward push of radio for mass verbal exchange and the discovery of early television.[114] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke back with the New Deal.[115] The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of African Americans out of the American South began prior to World War I and prolonged through the Sixties;[116] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-Nineteen Thirties impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[117]

U.S. Marines raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi throughout the Battle of Iwo Jima in one of the iconic photographs of the struggle.

At first effectively impartial all through World War II, the United States started supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a marvel assault on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to enroll in the Allies in opposition to the Axis powers, and within the following 12 months, to intern about 120,000[118] U.S. residents (including American voters) of Japanese descent.[119] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nevertheless pursued a "Europe first" defense coverage.[120] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, remoted and combating a shedding struggle in opposition to Japanese invasion and career. During the struggle, the United States was one of the most "Four Powers"[121] who met to plan the postwar global, along side Britain, the Soviet Union, and China.[122][123] Although the nation lost around 400,000 army workforce,[124] it emerged moderately undamaged from the war with even greater financial and military affect.[125]

The United States performed a number one role within the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new world monetary establishments and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory used to be gained in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which was lively after the war.[126] The United States and Japan then fought each and every other within the largest naval combat in history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[127][128] The United States eventually advanced the first nuclear guns and used them on Japan in the towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945; the Japanese surrendered on September 2, finishing World War II.[129][130]

Cold War and civil rights generation Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further data: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics Martin Luther King Jr. offers his well-known "I Have a Dream" speech on the Lincoln Memorial throughout the March on Washington, 1963 U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet common secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985

After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for continual, affect, and status throughout what changed into known as the Cold War, driven by means of an ideological divide between capitalism and communism.[131] They ruled the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies at the different. The U.S. evolved a policy of containment in opposition to the expansion of communist affect. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and advanced robust nuclear arsenals, the 2 nations avoided direct military conflict.[132]

The United States steadily hostile Third World movements that it seen as Soviet-sponsored and now and again pursued direct motion for regime alternate in opposition to left-wing governments, even every so often supporting authoritarian right-wing regimes.[133] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces within the Korean War of 1950–1953.[134] The Soviet Union's 1957 release of the first synthetic satellite tv for pc and its 1961 launch of the first crewed spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States turned into the first country to land a man on the Moon in 1969.[134] A proxy struggle in Southeast Asia eventually advanced into the Vietnam War (1955–1975), with full American participation.[135]

At domestic, the U.S. had skilled sustained economic growth and a rapid expansion of its population and center elegance following World War II. After a surge in feminine exertions participation, particularly within the 1970s, through 1985, the majority of ladies elderly Sixteen and over were hired.[136] Construction of an Interstate Highway System remodeled the nation's infrastructure over the next a long time. Millions moved from farms and internal cities to large suburban housing traits.[137][138] In 1959, the United States formally expanded beyond the contiguous United States when the territories of Alaska and Hawaii was, respectively, the forty ninth and fiftieth states admitted into the Union.[139] The rising Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. changing into a prominent leader and figurehead.[140] A combination of court docket choices and regulation, culminating within the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[141][142][143] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew, which used to be fueled through opposition to the Vietnam struggle, the Black Power movement, and the sexual revolution.

The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, together with the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two techniques that offer well being coverage to the aged and deficient, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[144]

The Seventies and early Eighties saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan answered to financial stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the cave in of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the extra competitive "rollback" strategy against the Soviet Union.[145][146] The overdue 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the Soviet Union, and its cave in in 1991 in any case ended the Cold War.[147][148][149] This led to unipolarity[150] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower.[151]

Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–gift) The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan all the way through the September Eleven terrorist assaults by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001 Candlelight vigil held by way of Members of Congress for the sufferers of the COVID-19 out of doors the U.S. Capitol in Washington. The United States has the best collection of deaths from Covid.[152]

After the Cold War, the conflict within the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait, an best friend of the United States. Fearing the spread of instability, in August, President George H. W. Bush launched and led the Gulf War towards Iraq; waged until January 1991 by way of coalition forces from 34 nations, it ended within the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy.[153]

Originating within U.S. army protection networks, the Internet unfold to global instructional platforms after which to the general public in the Nineteen Nineties, a great deal affecting the global economy, society, and tradition.[154] Due to the dot-com increase, stable monetary coverage, and diminished social welfare spending, the Nineties saw the longest financial growth in modern U.S. historical past.[155] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), causing trade a number of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to soar.[156]

On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorist hijackers flew passenger planes into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 other folks.[157] In response, President George W. Bush launched the War on Terror, which incorporated a battle in Afghanistan and the 2003–2011 Iraq War.[158][159] A 2011 military operation in Pakistan led to the loss of life of the chief of Al-Qaeda.[160]

Government policy designed to promote reasonably priced housing,[161] popular screw ups in corporate and regulatory governance,[162] and traditionally low interest rates set by way of the Federal Reserve[163] ended in the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial disaster, the country's biggest financial contraction since the Great Depression.[164] During the crisis, assets owned by way of Americans misplaced a couple of quarter of their price.[165]Barack Obama, the 1st African-American[166] and multiracial[167] president, was once elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[168] and due to this fact handed stimulus measures and the Dodd–Frank Act in an try to mitigate its unwanted effects and make sure there would not be a repeat of the disaster. In 2010, President Obama led efforts to move the Affordable Care Act, the most sweeping reform to the nation's healthcare device in nearly 5 decades.[169]

In the presidential election of 2016, Republican Donald Trump used to be elected as the forty fifth president of the United States, a end result seen as one of the vital greatest political upsets for the reason that 1948 election.[170] In the presidential election of 2020, Democrat Joe Biden was once elected because the 46th president.[171] On January 6, 2021, supporters of outgoing President Trump stormed the United States Capitol in an unsuccessful effort to disrupt the presidential Electoral College vote rely.[172]

On January 20, 2020, the 1st case of COVID-19 within the United States was showed.[173] By April 5, 2021, the United States had noticed more than 30 million COVID-19 circumstances and greater than 550,000 deaths.[174]Operation Warp Speed was once a public–personal partnership initiated by the United States government to facilitate and accelerate the development, production, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Eight vaccine applicants received federal investment from the program. This contains two vaccines that gained Emergency Use Authorization to be used in the United States, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine.[175][176]


Main article: Geography of the United States Köppen local weather classifications of U.S. states and territories

The 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,885 square miles (8,080,470 km2). Of this area, 2,959,064 sq. miles (7,663,940 km2) is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U.S. land house.[177][178]Hawaii, occupying an archipelago within the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in house. The populated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 sq. miles (23,789 km2).[179] Measured by means of simplest land area, the United States is 0.33 in length at the back of Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.[180]

The United States is the sector's third- or fourth-largest nation by general house (land and water), rating in the back of Russia and Canada and just about equal to China. The score varies depending on how two territories disputed by means of China and India are counted, and the way the entire length of the United States is measured.[c][181][182]

The coastal simple of the Atlantic seaboard gives manner further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.[183] The Appalachian Mountains divide the jap seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest.[184] The Mississippi–Missouri River, the sector's fourth longest river system, runs basically north–south during the heart of the rustic. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region within the southeast.[184]

The Rocky Mountains, west of the Great Plains, prolong north to south around the nation, peaking round 14,000 ft (4,300 m) in Colorado.[185] Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such because the Chihuahua and Mojave.[186] The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run with regards to the Pacific coast, each levels attaining altitudes higher than 14,000 ft (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California,[187] and best about Eighty four miles (135 km) apart.[188] At an elevation of 20,310 ft (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali is the very best top within the country and in North America.[189] Active volcanoes are not unusual all over Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii is composed of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic characteristic.[190]

The United States, with its huge length and geographic variety, includes most climate varieties. To the east of the a hundredth meridian, the local weather levels from humid continental within the north to humid subtropical within the south.[191] The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine local weather. The climate is arid within the Great Basin, wasteland within the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.[192] States bordering the Gulf of Mexico are vulnerable to hurricanes, and lots of the international's tornadoes occur in the country, principally in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South.[193] Overall, the United States receives more high-impact extreme weather incidents than any other country on the earth.[194]

Wildlife and conservation Main articles: Fauna of the United States and Flora of the United States The bald eagle has been the nationwide chicken of the United States since 1782.[195]

The U.S. is one in all 17 megadiverse nations containing a large amount of endemic species: about 17,000 species of vascular plants happen in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and more than 1,800 species of flowering plants are present in Hawaii, few of which take place at the mainland.[196] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 chook species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species,[197] as well as about 91,000 insect species.[198]

There are 62 national parks and hundreds of alternative federally managed parks, forests, and barren region spaces.[199] Altogether, the federal government owns about 28% of the country's land house,[200] mostly in the western states.[201] Most of this land is safe, regardless that some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or livestock ranching, and about .86% is used for army purposes.[202][203]

Environmental problems come with debates on oil and nuclear power, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of defending wildlife, logging and deforestation,[204][205] and climate trade.[206][207] The most distinguished environmental agency is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created through presidential order in 1970.[208] The thought of desert has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act.[209] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is meant to give protection to threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which might be monitored by way of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.[210]

The United States is ranked 24th amongst countries within the Environmental Performance Index.[211] The nation joined the Paris Agreement on climate alternate in 2016 and has many different environmental commitments.[212] It left the Paris Agreement in 2020,[213] and rejoined it in 2021.[214]


Main articles: Americans, Demographics of the United States, Race and ethnicity within the United States, and Family construction in the United States Population See additionally: List of U.S. states via inhabitants and List of United States cities by way of population Historical population Census Pop. %± 17903,929,214—18005,308,48335.1p.c18107,239,88136.4%18209,638,45333.1%183012,866,02033.5p.c184017,069,45332.7percent185023,191,87635.9p.c186031,443,32135.6%187038,558,37122.6percent188050,189,20930.2%189062,979,76625.5percent190076,212,16821.0%191092,228,49621.0percent1920106,021,53715.0p.c1930123,202,62416.2p.c1940132,164,5697.3percent1950151,325,79814.5percent1960179,323,17518.5percent1970203,211,92613.3p.c1980226,545,80511.5%1990248,709,8739.8%2000281,421,90613.2percent2010308,745,5389.7percent2020331,449,2817.4%Note that the census numbers donot come with Native Americans until 1860.[215]

The U.S. Census Bureau reported 331,449,281 residents as of April 1, 2020.[216] This figure, like most reliable data for the United States as a complete, excludes the 5 unincorporated, self-governing territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and minor island possessions. According to the Bureau's U.S. Population Clock, on January 28, 2021, the U.S. population had a web achieve of one person each and every A hundred seconds, or about 864 people consistent with day.[217] The United States is the 0.33 maximum populous country on the earth, after China and India. In 2020 the median age of the United States population was 38.5 years.[218]

In 2018, there have been virtually 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born youngsters of immigrants within the United States, accounting for 28% of the total U.S. population.[219] The United States has a diverse inhabitants; 37 ancestry teams have multiple million members.[220]White Americans of European ancestry, most commonly German, Irish, English, Italian, Polish and French,[221] including White Hispanic and Latino Americans from Latin America, shape the largest racial workforce, at 73.1% of the population. African Americans constitute the country's largest racial minority and third-largest ancestry staff, and are round 13% of the entire U.S. population.[220]Asian Americans are the rustic's second-largest racial minority (the three biggest Asian ethnic groups are Chinese, Filipino, and Indian).[220]

In 2017, out of the U.S. foreign-born inhabitants, some 45% (20.7 million) have been naturalized voters, 27% (12.Three million) had been lawful everlasting citizens, 6% (2.2 million) were brief lawful citizens, and 23% (10.5 million) have been unauthorized immigrants.[222] Among current living immigrants to the U.S., the top 5 international locations of start are Mexico, China, India, the Philippines and El Salvador. Until 2017, the United States led the sector in refugee resettlement for many years, admitting more refugees than the remainder of the arena combined.[223]

About 82% of Americans are living in city areas, including suburbs;[182] about half of of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000.[224] In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had a couple of million residents, and 4 cities had over two million (particularly New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston).[225] Many U.S. metropolitan populations are growing swiftly, in particular in the South and West.[226]

As of 2018, 52% of Americans age 15 and over had been married, 6% have been widowed, 10% had been divorced, and 32% had by no means been married.[227] The overall fertility fee was once 1820.5 births according to A thousand women in 2016.[228] In 2013, the average age at first beginning was once 26, and 41% of births had been to unmarried women.[229] In 2019, the U.S. had the world's very best rate of children living in single-parent households.[230]

Language Main article: Languages of the United States

English (particularly, American English) is the de facto nationwide language of the United States. Although there is not any professional language on the federal level, some rules—reminiscent of U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English, and maximum states have declared English as the reputable language.[231] Three states and 4 U.S. territories have identified local or indigenous languages in addition to English, together with Hawaii (Hawaiian),[232]Alaska (twenty Native languages),[h][233]South Dakota (Sioux),[234]American Samoa (Samoan), Puerto Rico (Spanish), Guam (Chamorro), and the Northern Mariana Islands (Carolinian and Chamorro). In Puerto Rico, Spanish is extra widely spoken than English.[235]

According to the American Community Survey, in 2010 some 229 million folks (out of the entire U.S. inhabitants of 308 million) spoke simplest English at domestic. More than 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second one most commonly used language in the United States. Other languages spoken at domestic through 1,000,000 other people or extra include Chinese (2.8 million), Tagalog (1.6 million), Vietnamese (1.4 million), French (1.3 million), Korean (1.1 million), and German (1 million).[236]

The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, with regards to enrollment numbers from kindergarten via college undergraduate education, are Spanish (round 7.2 million students), French (1.Five million), and German (500,000). Other usually taught languages come with Latin, Japanese, American Sign Language, Italian, and Chinese.[237][238] 18% of all Americans declare to talk each English and another language.[239]

Religion Main article: Religion within the United States Percentage of respondents within the United States pronouncing that faith is "very important" or "somewhat important" in their lives (2014).[240]

The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the loose exercise of faith and forbids Congress from passing rules respecting its status quo.

The United States has the sector's largest Christian population.[241] In a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults within the United States recognized themselves as Christians;[242]Protestants accounted for 46.5%, whilst Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, shaped the most important unmarried Christian workforce.[243] In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult inhabitants claimed a non-Christian faith.[244] These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Buddhism (0.7%).[244] The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or just having no faith—up from 8.2% in 1990.[243][245][246] Membership in a house of worship fell from 70% in 1999 to 47% in 2020, a lot of the decline associated with the number of Americans expressing no religious choice. However, membership also fell among those that known with a particular religious staff.[247][248]

Protestantism is the biggest Christian spiritual grouping in the United States, accounting for nearly 1/2 of all Americans. Baptists jointly form the largest department of Protestantism at 15.4%,[249] and the Southern Baptist Convention is the most important particular person Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S. population.[249] Apart from Baptists, other Protestant categories include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists, Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, other Reformed, Episcopalians/Anglicans, Quakers, Adventists, Holiness, Christian fundamentalists, Anabaptists, Pietists, and more than one others.[249]

The Bible Belt is a casual time period for a region within the Southern United States wherein socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a vital a part of the culture and Christian church attendance around the denominations is generally upper than the country's moderate. By contrast, religion performs the least necessary function in New England and within the Western United States.[250]

Health See additionally: Health care within the United States, Health care reform within the United States, and Health insurance coverage in the United States The Texas Medical Center in downtown Houston is the largest clinical complex in the world.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that the United States had an average existence expectancy at start of 78.Eight years in 2019 (76.Three years for males and 81.4 years for girls), up 0.1 12 months from 2018.[251] This was once the second 12 months that general U.S. life expectancy rose relatively after 3 years of total declines that followed decades of constant growth. The recent decline, essentially a number of the age group 25 to 64, used to be largely due to report highs in the drug overdose and suicide rates; the country nonetheless has one of the most absolute best suicide charges among rich countries.[252][253][254] From 1999 to 2019, more than 770,000 Americans died from drug overdoses.[255] Life expectancy was best among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks.[256][257]

Increasing weight problems in the United States and improvements in well being and longevity out of doors the U.S. contributed to lowering the country's rank in lifestyles expectancy from eleventh on the earth in 1987 to 42nd in 2007. In 2017, the United States had the bottom existence expectancy among Japan, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and seven nations in western Europe.[258][259] Obesity charges have greater than doubled in the ultimate 30 years and are the perfect within the industrialized world.[260][261] Approximately one-third of the grownup population is overweight and an extra 0.33 is overweight.[262] Obesity-related sort 2 diabetes is regarded as epidemic via well being care execs.[263]

In 2010, coronary artery illness, lung cancer, stroke, power obstructive pulmonary illnesses, and traffic injuries caused probably the most years of lifestyles lost in the U.S. Low back pain, despair, musculoskeletal issues, neck pain, and anxiety brought about probably the most years misplaced to disability. The maximum destructive menace elements were deficient diet, tobacco smoking, weight problems, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, bodily inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, drug abuse, kidney disease, most cancers, and falls brought about the most additional years of existence misplaced over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita charges.[264] U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are considerably higher than in different Western countries, particularly amongst blacks and Hispanics.[265]

Government-funded health care protection for the poor (Medicaid, established in 1965) and for the ones age Sixty five and older (Medicare, begun in 1966) is available to Americans who meet the systems' income or age qualifications. Nonetheless, the United States stays the one evolved nation with out a gadget of common health care.[266] In 2017, 12.2% of the population didn't lift medical insurance.[267] The topic of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a significant political factor.[268][269] The Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in early 2010 and informally referred to as "ObamaCare", roughly halved the uninsured percentage of the population. The invoice and its ultimate impact are still problems with controversy in the United States.[270][271] The U.S. health care device a ways outspends that of some other nation, measured both in in line with capita spending and as a share of GDP.[272] However, the U.S. is an international chief in scientific innovation.[273]

Education Main articles: Education in the United States and Higher training in the United States The University of Georgia, based in 1785, is the oldest chartered public university in the United States. Universal government-funded training exists within the United States, whilst there also are many privately funded institutions.

American public training is operated by means of state and local governments and controlled by way of the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In maximum states, youngsters are required to attend faculty from the age of six or seven (typically, kindergarten or first grade) till they flip 18 (usually bringing them via twelfth grade, the tip of highschool); some states allow scholars to leave faculty at Sixteen or 17.[274]

About 12% of youngsters are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private colleges. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled.[275] The U.S. spends more on training consistent with scholar than any country on the earth,[276] spending a median of ,794 in keeping with yr on public elementary and secondary faculty students within the 2016–2017 school year.[277] Some 80% of U.S. school scholars attend public universities.[278]

Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from highschool, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate levels.[279] The basic literacy charge is approximately 99%.[182][280] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for twelfth in the world.[281]

The United States has many private and public establishments of higher schooling. The majority of the sector's peak universities, as indexed through various rating organizations, are in the U.S.[282][283][284] There also are area people schools with generally extra open admission insurance policies, shorter educational methods, and lower tuition.

In 2018, U21, a community of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world for breadth and quality of upper schooling, and 15th when GDP was once a factor.[285] As for public expenditures on higher schooling, the U.S. trails some other OECD (Organization for Cooperation and Development) nations however spends extra in step with pupil than the OECD moderate, and greater than all international locations in mixed private and non-private spending.[286][287] As of 2018, scholar loan debt exceeded 1.Five trillion bucks.[288][289]

Government and politics

Main articles: Federal authorities of the United States, Politics of the United States, State governments of the United States, and Local government in the United States The United States Capitol,the place Congress meets:the Senate, left; the House, rightThe White House, residence and place of work of the U.S. PresidentThe Supreme Court Building, where the nation's easiest court docket sits

The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, 5 territories and several other uninhabited island possessions.[290][291][292] It is the arena's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law."[293] The U.S. ranked 25th on the Democracy Index in 2018.[294] On Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, its public sector position deteriorated from a rating of Seventy six in 2015 to Sixty nine in 2019.[295]

In the American federalist gadget, citizens are generally topic to a few levels of presidency: federal, state, and native. The native authorities's tasks are recurrently break up between county and municipal governments. In almost all circumstances, govt and legislative officers are elected via a plurality vote of citizens through district.

The government is regulated through a machine of assessments and balances defined through the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's perfect legal document.[296] The original text of the Constitution establishes the construction and tasks of the federal government and its courting with the person states. Article One protects the suitable to the writ of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 instances;[297] the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment shape the central foundation of Americans' person rights. All rules and governmental procedures are topic to judicial assessment and any law ruled through the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The theory of judicial assessment, not explicitly discussed within the Constitution, was once established via the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803)[298] in a choice handed down through Chief Justice John Marshall.[299]

The federal government incorporates three branches:

Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, pronounces conflict, approves treaties, has the ability of the purse,[300] and has the ability of impeachment, through which it could possibly remove sitting members of the government.[301] Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the army, can veto legislative bills ahead of they turn into regulation (subject to congressional override), and appoints the contributors of the Cabinet (topic to Senate approval) and other officials, who administer and put in force federal regulations and insurance policies.[302] Judicial: The Supreme Court and decrease federal courts, whose judges are appointed by way of the president with Senate approval, interpret rules and overturn those they find unconstitutional.[303]

The House of Representatives has 435 voting contributors, each and every representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned a few of the states by way of population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The District of Columbia and the 5 main U.S. territories every have one member of Congress—those individuals don't seem to be allowed to vote.[304]

The Senate has A hundred members with every state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year phrases; one-third of Senate seats are up for election each two years. The District of Columbia and the 5 primary U.S. territories shouldn't have senators.[304] The president serves a four-year time period and is also elected to the place of business not more than two times. The president is not elected via direct vote, however by an oblique electoral college device in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.[305] The Supreme Court, led by the manager justice of the United States, has nine participants, who serve for existence.[306]

Political divisions Main articles: Political divisions of the United States, U.S. state, Territories of the United States, List of states and territories of the United States, and Indian reservation Further information: Territorial evolution of the United States Map of the United States showing the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Five main U.S. territories

The 50 states are the predominant political divisions in the nation. Each state holds jurisdiction over an outlined geographic territory, the place it shares sovereignty with the government. They are subdivided into counties or county-equivalents and additional divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that incorporates the capital of the United States, Washington, D.C.[307] The states and the District of Columbia select the president of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the collection of their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has 3 on account of the 23rd Amendment.[308]Territories of the United States comparable to Puerto Rico would not have presidential electors, and so people in those territories cannot vote for the president.[304]

The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a restricted stage, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. electorate and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a substantial amount of autonomy, but in addition like the states, tribes don't seem to be allowed to make struggle, engage in their very own overseas relations, or print and issue forex.[309]

Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all primary U.S. territories apart from American Samoa.[i][313][310]

State and district flags and statehood dates(indexed alphabetically)  Alabama: Dec. 14, 1819  Alaska: Jan. 3, 1959  Arizona: Feb. 14, 1912  Arkansas: Jun. 15, 1836  California: Sep. 9, 1850  Colorado: Aug. 1, 1876  Connecticut: Jan. 9, 1788  Delaware: Dec. 7, 1787  District of Columbia*: Jul. 16, 1790  Florida: Mar. 3, 1845  Georgia: Jan. 2, 1788  Hawaii: Aug. 21, 1959  Idaho: Jul. 3, 1890  Illinois: Dec. 3, 1818  Indiana: Dec. 11, 1816  Iowa: Dec. 28, 1846  Kansas: Jan. 29, 1861  Kentucky: Jun. 1, 1792  Louisiana: Apr. 30, 1812  Maine: Mar. 15, 1820  Maryland: Apr. 28, 1788  Massachusetts: Feb. 6, 1788  Michigan: Jan. 26, 1837  Minnesota: May 11, 1858  Mississippi: Dec. 10, 1817  Missouri: Aug. 10, 1821  Montana: Nov. 8, 1889  Nebraska: Mar. 1, 1867  Nevada: Oct. 31, 1864  New Hampshire: Jun. 21, 1788  New Jersey: Dec. 18, 1787  New Mexico: Jan. 6, 1912  New York: Jul. 26, 1788  North Carolina: Nov. 21, 1789  North Dakota: Nov. 2, 1889  Ohio: Mar. 1, 1803  Oklahoma: Nov. 16, 1907  Oregon: Feb. 14, 1859  Pennsylvania: Dec. 12, 1787  Rhode Island: May 29, 1790  South Carolina: May 23, 1788  South Dakota: Nov. 2, 1889  Tennessee: Jun. 1, 1796  Texas: Dec. 29, 1845  Utah: Jan. 4, 1896  Vermont: Mar. 4, 1791  Virginia: Jun. 25, 1788  Washington: Nov. 11, 1889  West Virginia: Jun. 20, 1863  Wisconsin: May 29, 1848  Wyoming: Jul. 10, 1890(listed chronologically) Dec. 7, 1787:  Delaware Dec. 12, 1787:  Pennsylvania Dec. 18, 1787:  New Jersey Jan. 2, 1788:  Georgia Jan. 9, 1788:  Connecticut Feb. 6, 1788:  Massachusetts Apr. 28, 1788:  Maryland May 23, 1788:  South Carolina Jun. 21, 1788:  New Hampshire Jun. 25, 1788:  Virginia Jul. 26, 1788:  New York Nov. 21, 1789:  North Carolina May 29, 1790:  Rhode Island Mar. 4, 1791:  Vermont Jun. 1, 1792:  Kentucky Jun. 1, 1796:  Tennessee Jul. 16, 1790:  District of Columbia* Mar. 1, 1803:  Ohio Apr. 30, 1812:  Louisiana Dec. 11, 1816:  Indiana Dec. 10, 1817:  Mississippi Dec. 3, 1818:  Illinois Dec. 14, 1819:  Alabama Mar. 15, 1820:  Maine Aug. 10, 1821:  Missouri Jun. 15, 1836:  Arkansas Jan. 26, 1837:  Michigan Mar. 3, 1845:  Florida Dec. 29, 1845:  Texas Dec. 28, 1846:  Iowa May 29, 1848:  Wisconsin Sep. 9, 1850:  California May 11, 1858:  Minnesota Feb. 14, 1859:  Oregon Jan. 29, 1861:  Kansas Jun. 20, 1863:  West Virginia Oct. 31, 1864:  Nevada Mar. 1, 1867:  Nebraska Aug. 1, 1876:  Colorado Nov. 2, 1889:  North Dakota Nov. 2, 1889:  South Dakota Nov. 8, 1889:  Montana Nov. 11, 1889:  Washington Jul. 3, 1890:  Idaho Jul. 10, 1890:  Wyoming Jan. 4, 1896:  Utah Nov. 16, 1907:  Oklahoma Jan. 6, 1912 :  New Mexico Feb. 14, 1912 :  Arizona Jan. 3, 1959:  Alaska Aug. 21, 1959:  HawaiiStatehood date is the date of ratifying the Constitution (for the first 13) or being admitted to the Union (for subsequent states) *District of Columbia is a district not a state Territory and district flags and dates(indexed alphabetically)  American Samoa: Apr. 17, 1900  Guam: Apr. 11, 1899  Northern Mariana Islands: Nov. 4, 1986  Puerto Rico: Apr. 11, 1899  US Virgin Islands: Mar. 31, 1917(indexed chronologically) Apr. 11, 1899:  Guam Apr. 11, 1899:  Puerto Rico Apr. 17, 1900:  American Samoa Mar. 31, 1917:  US Virgin Islands Nov. 4, 1986:  Northern Mariana IslandsTerritory date is the date the territory was got by means of the United States. The USMOI don't seem to be listed. Parties and elections Main articles: Political events within the United States, Elections within the United States, and Political ideologies in the United States Joe Bidenforty sixth Presidentsince January 20, 2021Kamala Harrisforty ninth Vice Presidentsince January 20, 2021

The United States has operated under a two-party gadget for most of its historical past.[314] For optional places of work at most levels, state-administered primary elections make a choice the foremost party nominees for next general elections. Since the overall election of 1856, the most important events have been the Democratic Party, based in 1824, and the Republican Party, based in 1854. Since the Civil War, just one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has received up to 20% of the preferred vote. The president and vice president are elected by way of the Electoral College.[315]

In American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is regarded as "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is regarded as "liberal".[316][317] The states of the Northeast and West Coast and one of the Great Lakes states, referred to as "blue states", are reasonably liberal. The "red states" of the South and portions of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are slightly conservative.

Democratic Joe Biden, the winner of the 2020 presidential election and previous vice president, is serving because the 46th president of the United States. Leadership in the Senate includes vice president Kamala Harris, president professional tempore Patrick Leahy, Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, and Minority Leader Mitch McConnell.[318] Leadership in the House comprises Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, and Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy.[319]

In the 117th United States Congress, the House of Representatives and the Senate are controlled via the Democratic Party. The Senate consists of fifty Republicans and 48 Democrats with two Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 222 Democrats and 211 Republicans.[320] Of state governors, there are 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats. Among the D.C. mayor and the 5 territorial governors, there are 3 Democrats, one Republican, and one New Progressive.[321]

Foreign family members Main articles: Foreign members of the family of the United States and Foreign policy of the United States Diplomatic members of the family of the United States  United States  Countries that experience diplomatic relations with the United States  Countries that don't have diplomatic relations with the United States  Disputed territories  Antarctica

The United States has a longtime construction of foreign members of the family. It is an enduring member of the United Nations Security Council. New York City is domestic to the United Nations Headquarters. Almost all nations have embassies in Washington, D.C., and lots of have consulates across the country. Likewise, nearly all international locations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic members of the family with the United States (despite the fact that the U.S. nonetheless maintains unofficial family members with Bhutan and Taiwan).[322] It is a member of the G7,[323]G20, and OECD.

The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom[324] and robust ties with India, Canada,[325]Australia,[326]New Zealand,[327]the Philippines,[328]Japan,[329]South Korea,[330]Israel,[331] and several other European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Poland.[332] It works carefully with fellow NATO individuals on army and safety issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and unfastened industry agreements such because the trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico. Colombia is historically regarded as by means of the United States as its maximum dependable best friend in South America.[333][334]

The U.S. workouts complete international protection authority and responsibility for Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau through the Compact of Free Association.[335]

Government finance See additionally: Taxation in the United States and United States federal funds U.S. Government spending and income from 1792 to 2018

Taxation within the United States is modern,[336][337] and is levied at the federal, state, and native government levels. This includes taxes on income, payroll, belongings, gross sales, imports, estates, and presents, as well as more than a few fees. Taxation within the United States is according to citizenship, not residency.[338] Both non-resident electorate and Green Card holders dwelling abroad are taxed on their income without reference to the place they are living or the place their income is earned. The United States is one of the best international locations in the world to do so.[339]

In 2010 taxes accumulated by means of federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP.[340] Based on CBO estimates,[341] underneath 2013 tax law the highest 1% will likely be paying the best possible average tax charges since 1979, whilst different income groups will stay at ancient lows.[342] For 2018, the efficient tax price for the wealthiest 400 families used to be 23%, in comparison to 24.2% for the bottom half of U.S. families.[343]

During fiscal yr 2012, the government spent .54 trillion on a budget or money basis. Major classes of fiscal yr 2012 spending incorporated: Medicare & Medicaid (23%), Social Security (22%), Defense Department (19%), non-defense discretionary (17%), different necessary (13%) and interest (6%).[344]

In 2018, the United States had the biggest external debt on this planet.[345] As a percentage of GDP, it had the thirty fourth biggest government debt on the planet in 2017; then again, newer estimates vary.[346] The total national debt of the United States was .201 trillion, or 107% of GDP, in the fourth quarter of 2019.[347] By 2012, overall federal debt had surpassed 100% of U.S. GDP.[348] The U.S. has a credit standing of AA+ from Standard & Poor's, AAA from Fitch, and AAA from Moody's.[349]

Military Main article: United States Armed Forces The nuclear-powered aircraft service USS George Washington (CVN 73)

The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of protection and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense administers 5 of the six provider branches, that are made up of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force. The Coast Guard, also a department of the armed forces, is usually administered by means of the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can also be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime. In 2019, all six branches of the U.S. Armed Forces reported 1.Four million staff on energetic accountability.[350] The Reserves and National Guard brought the entire collection of troops to 2.Three million.[350] The Department of Defense additionally hired about 700,000 civilians, not together with contractors.[351]

Global presence of the United States army, appearing Unified combatant instructions

Military service within the United States is voluntary, despite the fact that conscription may happen in wartime throughout the Selective Service System.[352] From 1940 till 1973, conscription was once obligatory even all the way through peacetime.[353] Today, American forces can be hastily deployed via the Air Force's wide fleet of delivery airplane, the Navy's Eleven lively airplane carriers, and Marine expeditionary devices at sea with the Navy, and Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and seventy fifth Ranger Regiment deployed through Air Force delivery aircraft. The Air Force can strike objectives around the globe through its fleet of strategic bombers, maintains the air defense around the United States, and offers close air support to Army and Marine Corps floor forces.[354][355][356] The Space Force operates the Global Positioning System, operates the Eastern and Western Ranges for all space launches, and operates the United States' Space Surveillance and Missile Warning networks.[357][358][359] The military operates about 800 bases and facilities in a foreign country,[360] and maintains deployments greater than 100 energetic responsibility staff in 25 overseas international locations.[361]

The United States spent 9 billion on its army in 2019, 36% of world military spending.[362] At 4.7% of GDP, the velocity was once the second-highest some of the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia.[362] Defense spending performs a significant role in science and era investment, with kind of half of of U.S. federal study and construction funded through the Department of Defense.[363] Defense's share of the total U.S. financial system has usually declined in recent many years, from early Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal spending in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal spending in 2011.[364] In general selection of group of workers, the United States has the third-largest combined militia in the world, at the back of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and Indian Armed Forces.[365]

The country is one of the five known nuclear weapons states and one in all nine international locations to own nuclear weapons.[366] The United States possesses the second-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons on this planet, at the back of the Russian Federation.[366] More than 40% of the sector's 14,000 nuclear guns are held by the United States.[366]

Law enforcement and crime Main articles: Law enforcement within the United States and Crime in the United States See additionally: Law of the United States, Human rights in the United States § Justice system, Incarceration in the United States, Police brutality in the United States, and Capital punishment in the United States The New York City Police Department is the country's biggest municipal legislation enforcement agency.

Law enforcement within the United States is basically the responsibility of local police departments and sheriff's places of work, with state police offering broader services. Federal companies such because the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialised duties, including protective civil rights, national safety and imposing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal regulations.[367] State courts habits maximum felony trials whilst federal courts deal with certain designated crimes as well as sure appeals from the state prison courts.

A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 confirmed that United States murder charges "were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher."[368] In 2016, the U.S. murder fee used to be 5.Four in line with 100,000.[369]

Total incarceration within the United States via 12 months (1920–2014)

The United States has the easiest documented incarceration price and biggest prison population in the world.[370] As of 2020, the Prison Policy Initiative reported that there were some 2.Three million other folks incarcerated.[371] According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, nearly all of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses.[372] The imprisonment charge for all prisoners sentenced to more than a 12 months in state or federal facilities is 478 according to 100,000 in 2013.[373] About 9% of prisoners are held in privatized prisons,[371] a convention beginning in the Eighties and a topic of rivalry.[374]

Although maximum countries have abolished capital punishment,[375] it's sanctioned within the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and on the state point in 28 states, even though three states have moratoriums on wearing out the penalty imposed by way of their governors.[376][377][378] In 2019, the rustic had the sixth-highest choice of executions on this planet, following China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Egypt.[379] No executions happened from 1967 to 1977, owing partially to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling hanging down the practice. Since the decision, on the other hand, there have been greater than 1,500 executions.[380] In fresh years the collection of executions and presence of capital punishment statute on whole has trended down nationally, with a number of states just lately abolishing the penalty.[378]


Main article: Economy of the United States See also: Economic historical past of the United States, List of companies of the United States through state, List of largest corporations within the United States by way of revenue, and Lists of businesses The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street is the sector's biggest stock change (in line with market capitalization of its listed firms)[381] at .1 trillion as of April 2018.[382]

According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of .8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at marketplace exchange charges and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing persistent parity.[383][384] The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter,[385] although exports according to capita are fairly low. In 2010, the total U.S. trade deficit was 5 billion.[386] Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its height buying and selling companions.[387]

From 1983 to 2008, U.S. actual compounded annual GDP enlargement used to be 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the remainder of the G7.[388] The country ranks ninth on the planet in nominal GDP in keeping with capita[389] and sixth in GDP according to capita at PPP.[384] The U.S. dollar is the sector's number one reserve currency.[390]

In 2009, the private sector used to be estimated to constitute 86.4% of the financial system.[391] While its economic system has reached a postindustrial level of building, the United States remains an business continual.[392] In August 2010, the American hard work pressure consisted of 154.1 million people (50%). With 21.2 million other folks, government is the leading box of employment. The biggest personal employment sector is well being care and social help, with 16.Four million folks. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through authorities motion than most European international locations.[393]

The United States is the only complicated economy that doesn't ensure its workers paid vacation[394] and is certainly one of a few international locations in the world without paid circle of relatives leave as a criminal correct.[395] 74% of full-time American staff get paid sick depart, consistent with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, even if only 24% of part-time workers get the similar benefits.[396] In 2009, the United States had the third-highest workforce productiveness in step with person in the world, at the back of Luxembourg and Norway.[397][398]

Science and era Main articles: Science and era in the United States and Science policy of the United States Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, 1969

The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and clinical research for the reason that mid-Twentieth century. Methods for producing interchangeable portions were evolved via the U.S. War Department through the Federal Armories right through the 1st half of of the 19th century. This technology, in conjunction with the established order of a gadget software trade, enabled the U.S. to have large-scale production of sewing machines, bicycles, and other items within the overdue 19th century and changed into known as the American device of manufacturing. Factory electrification within the early Twentieth century and advent of the meeting line and different labor-saving techniques created the machine of mass manufacturing.[399] In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of study and development investment comes from the personal sector.[400] The United States leads the sector in medical research papers and affect factor.[401][402]

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell used to be awarded the first U.S. patent for the phone. Thomas Edison's study laboratory, one of the vital first of its type, advanced the phonograph, the 1st long-lasting mild bulb, and the first viable movie digicam.[403] The latter ended in emergence of the worldwide entertainment trade. In the early Twentieth century, the car firms of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the meeting line. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made the 1st sustained and regulated heavier-than-air powered flight.[404]

The upward thrust of fascism and Nazism within the 1920s and 30s led many European scientists, together with Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States.[405] During World War II, the Manhattan Project advanced nuclear guns, ushering within the Atomic Age, whilst the Space Race produced speedy advances in rocketry, fabrics science, and aeronautics.[406][407]

The invention of the transistor within the Nineteen Fifties, a key lively element in almost all modern electronics, ended in many technological trends and a vital growth of the U.S. generation trade.[408] This, in turn, resulted in the established order of many new generation companies and areas around the nation comparable to Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by way of American microprocessor corporations comparable to Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Intel, in conjunction with both pc software and hardware corporations such as Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems, created and popularized the personal pc. The ARPANET used to be developed in the Nineteen Sixties to fulfill Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a chain of networks which advanced into the Internet.[409]

Income, poverty and wealth Further information: Income in the United States, Poverty within the United States, Affluence within the United States, United States counties by means of in keeping with capita revenue, and Income inequality within the United States

Accounting for 4.24% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 29.4% of the sector's general wealth, the largest percentage of any country.[410][411] Americans additionally make up kind of 1/2 of the sector's population of millionaires.[412] The Global Food Security Index ranked the U.S. primary for meals affordability and overall meals security in March 2013.[413] Americans on reasonable have more than two times as a lot residing space per dwelling and consistent with individual as EU citizens.[414] For 2017 the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 13th amongst 189 nations in its Human Development Index (HDI) and 25th among 151 countries in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).[415]

Wealth inequality within the U.S. larger between 1989 and 2013.[416]

Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the grownup inhabitants possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half possess most effective 2%.[417] According to the Federal Reserve, the highest 1% controlled 38.6% of the rustic's wealth in 2016.[418] In 2017, Forbes found that just three individuals (Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett and Bill Gates) held more money than the ground half of the population.[419] According to a 2018 find out about by way of the OECD, the United States has a bigger proportion of low-income staff than almost another advanced nation, in large part on account of a weak collective bargaining gadget and lack of government support for at-risk employees.[420] The top one % of income-earners accounted for Fifty two p.c of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where revenue is outlined as market revenue apart from government transfers.[421]

After years of stagnation, median household income reached a document excessive in 2016 following two consecutive years of report growth. Income inequality remains at document highs then again, with the top 5th of earners taking domestic more than 1/2 of all general revenue.[422] The upward thrust within the proportion of general annual income won via the top one p.c, which has greater than doubled from nine % in 1976 to twenty p.c in 2011, has considerably affected income inequality,[423] leaving the United States with one of the crucial widest income distributions amongst OECD countries.[424] The extent and relevance of income inequality is an issue of discussion.[425][426][427]

There had been about 567,715 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons within the U.S. in January 2019, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program.[428] In 2011, 16.7 million kids lived in food-insecure families, about 35% greater than 2007 levels, even though simplest 845,000 U.S. children (1.1%) saw lowered meals intake or disrupted consuming patterns sooner or later throughout the yr, and most circumstances were not persistent.[429] As of June 2018, Forty million other people, more or less 12.7% of the U.S. population, were living in poverty, including 13.3 million children. Of those impoverished, 18.5 million live in deep poverty (circle of relatives revenue below one-half of the poverty threshold) and over five million live "in 'Third World' conditions".[430] In 2017, the U.S. states or territories with the lowest and easiest poverty charges were New Hampshire (7.6%) and American Samoa (65%), respectively.[431][432][433] The economic impact and mass unemployment brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic raised fears of a mass eviction crisis,[434] with an analysis by the Aspen Institute indicating that between 30 and 40 million folks were in danger for eviction by way of the top of 2020.[435]


Transportation Main article: Transportation within the United States The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous states, which extends 46,876 miles (75,440 km)[436]

Personal transportation is ruled via vehicles, which function on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million kilometers) of public roads.[437] The United States has the arena's second-largest automotive marketplace,[438] and has the highest automobile possession in step with capita on the planet, with 816.Four cars per 1,000 Americans (2014).[439] In 2017, there were 255,009,283 non-two wheel motor vehicles, or about 910 vehicles consistent with 1,000 other folks.[440]

The civil airline trade is totally privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most main airports are publicly owned.[441] The 3 largest airways on this planet by means of passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition through US Airways.[442] Of the sector's 50 busiest passenger airports, Sixteen are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.[443]

The United States has the biggest rail shipping community size of any country on the earth with a gadget duration of 125,828 miles, just about all standard gauge. Amtrak is the principle publicly owned passenger railroad carrier within the United States, offering service in 46 states and the District of Columbia.[444][445]

Transport is the most important unmarried supply of greenhouse gasoline emissions through the United States, which are the second one best through country, exceeded only via China's.[446] The United States has historically been the arena's largest manufacturer of greenhouse gases, and greenhouse gasoline emissions according to capita remain excessive.[447]

Energy Further data: Energy policy of the United States

The United States power market is set 29,000 terawatt hours according to year.[448] In 2018, 37% of this energy got here from petroleum, 31% from natural gas, and 13% from coal. The remainder used to be supplied by means of nuclear and renewable power resources.[449]


Main article: Culture of the United States For many immigrants, the Statue of Liberty used to be their first view of the United States. It signified new opportunities in existence, and thus the statue is an iconic image of the American Dream in addition to its beliefs.[450]

The United States is domestic to many cultures and all kinds of ethnic teams, traditions, and values.[451][452] Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, just about all Americans or their ancestors immigrated inside the previous 5 centuries.[453] Mainstream American tradition is a Western culture in large part derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many different sources, equivalent to traditions introduced through slaves from Africa.[451][454] More recent immigration from Asia and particularly Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as each a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl through which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural traits.[451]

Americans have historically been characterized by way of a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism,[455] as well as a unifying trust in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality, personal assets, democracy, rule of legislation, and a choice for limited authorities.[456] Americans are extraordinarily charitable through global requirements: according to a 2006 British learn about, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, greater than another country studied.[457][458][459]

The American Dream, or the belief that Americans revel in high social mobility, performs a key function in attracting immigrants.[460] Whether this belief is correct has been an issue of dialogue.[461][462][463] While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society,[464] scholars determine vital differences between the rustic's social categories, affecting socialization, language, and values.[465] Americans tend to very much worth socioeconomic success, however being unusual or average could also be generally observed as a positive attribute.[466]

Literature, philosophy, and visual artwork Main articles: American literature, American philosophy, Architecture of the United States, and Visual art of the United States Mark Twain, American author and slapstick comedian

In the 18th and early Nineteenth centuries, American artwork and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers corresponding to Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice through the center of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman had been primary figures in the century's second half of; Emily Dickinson, nearly unknown all the way through her lifetime, is now identified as an essential American poet.[467] A piece noticed as shooting elementary aspects of the nationwide revel in and personality—corresponding to Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—could also be dubbed the "Great American Novel."[468]

Thirteen U.S. voters have received the Nobel Prize in Literature. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are regularly named among the most influential writers of the 20 th century.[469] Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction advanced in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors corresponding to John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo.[470]

The transcendentalists, led via Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the 1st major American philosophical motion. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce after which William James and John Dewey were leaders within the construction of pragmatism. In the 20 th century, the paintings of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam Chomsky, introduced analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick additionally led a revival of political philosophy.

In the visible arts, the Hudson River School used to be a mid-Nineteenth-century motion in the custom of European naturalism. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist artwork, stunned the general public and reworked the U.S. art scene.[471]Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic types. Major artistic actions such as the summary expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop artwork of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein advanced in large part within the United States. The tide of modernism after which postmodernism has introduced popularity to American architects corresponding to Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry.[472] Americans have lengthy been essential within the modern inventive medium of photography, with primary photographers together with Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, Edward Weston, and Ansel Adams.[473]

Food Main article: Cuisine of the United States Roasted turkey is a standard menu merchandise of an American Thanksgiving dinner.[474]

Early settlers had been presented by way of Native Americans to such indigenous, non-European foods as turkey, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup. They and later immigrants combined these with meals that they had identified, reminiscent of wheat flour,[475] red meat, and milk to create a particular American cuisine.[476][477]

Homegrown foods are a part of a shared national menu on one in every of America's hottest vacations, Thanksgiving, when some Americans make conventional meals to have a good time the instance.[478]

The American speedy meals trade, the world's biggest,[479] pioneered the drive-through format in the Forties.[480] Characteristic dishes comparable to apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian assets are widely fed on.[481] Americans drink thrice as a lot coffee as tea.[482] Marketing by means of U.S. industries is in large part answerable for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.[483][484]

Music Main articles: Music of the United States and American classical music

One of America's early composers was once a person named William Billings who, born in Boston, composed patriotic hymns within the 1770s.[485] From the 1800s John Philip Sousa is regarded as considered one of America's largest composers.[486]

Although little known on the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists corresponding to Henry Cowell and John Cage created a particular American technique to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin developed a new synthesis of common and classical song.

The rhythmic and lyrical types of African-American track have deeply influenced American tune at broad, distinguishing it from European and African traditions. Elements from folks idioms such because the blues and what is referred to now as old-time track have been adopted and transformed into common genres with world audiences. Jazz was once developed via innovators equivalent to Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed within the 1920s, and rhythm and blues within the Nineteen Forties.[487]

Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry had been a number of the mid-Nineteen Fifties pioneers of rock and roll. Rock bands similar to Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are some of the best possible grossing in worldwide gross sales.[488][489][490] In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folks revival to grow to be certainly one of America's maximum celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the improvement of funk.

More recent American creations come with hip hop, salsa, techno, and area tune. American pop stars comparable to Bing Crosby, Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson and Madonna have turn out to be world celebrities,[487] as have fresh musical artists comparable to Prince, Mariah Carey, Jennifer Lopez, Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Beyoncé, Bruno Mars, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift, and Ariana Grande.[491]

Cinema Main article: Cinema of the United States The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California

Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is without doubt one of the leaders in movement image manufacturing.[492] The international's first industrial movement picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, the usage of Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope.[493] Since the early 20th century, the U.S. movie industry has in large part been based in and round Hollywood, despite the fact that within the 21st century an increasing number of movies don't seem to be made there, and film firms were matter to the forces of globalization.[494]

Director D. W. Griffith, an American filmmaker all the way through the silent film period, used to be central to the advance of movie grammar, and manufacturer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was once a pacesetter in each animated film and film vending.[495] Directors equivalent to John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West, and, like others corresponding to John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location capturing. The business enjoyed its golden years, in what's commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound length till the early Sixties,[496] with screen actors akin to John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe turning into iconic figures.[497][498] In the Nineteen Seventies, "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance"[499] used to be outlined by grittier films influenced through French and Italian realist footage of the post-war period.[500] In more moderen instances, administrators similar to Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have won renown for their blockbuster motion pictures, continuously characterized by excessive production prices and profits.

Notable movies topping the American Film Institute's AFI One hundred list include Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941), which is often cited as the greatest movie of all time,[501][502]Casablanca (1942), The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Graduate (1967), On the Waterfront (1954), Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain (1952), It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard (1950).[503] The Academy Awards, popularly referred to as the Oscars, have been held yearly through the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929,[504] and the Golden Globe Awards have been held yearly since January 1944.[505]

Sports Main article: Sports within the United States The most popular sports activities in the U.S. are American football, basketball, baseball and ice hockey.[506]

American football is by a number of measures the most well liked spectator game in the United States;[507] the National Football League (NFL) has the best reasonable attendance of any sports activities league on the planet, and the Super Bowl is watched via tens of millions globally. Even on the collegiate level, college soccer games obtain millions of audience in keeping with television broadcast; maximum significantly the College Football Playoff, which averages 25 million viewers.[508]Baseball has been thought to be the U.S. nationwide sport since the late Nineteenth century, with Major League Baseball (MLB) being the top league. Basketball and ice hockey are the country's subsequent two leading professional group sports activities, with the top leagues being the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League (NHL). College soccer and basketball draw in vast audiences. The NCAA Final Four is without doubt one of the most watched wearing events.[509] In soccer (a game that has received a footing within the United States for the reason that mid-1990s), the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men's national soccer crew qualified for ten World Cups and the women's team has gained the FIFA Women's World Cup four instances; Major League Soccer is the game's highest league within the United States (that includes 23 American and 3 Canadian teams). The marketplace for professional sports activities in the United States is roughly $Sixty nine billion, kind of 50% greater than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.[510]

Eight Olympic Games have taken position within the United States. The 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, had been the first-ever Olympic Games held outdoor of Europe.[511] As of 2017, the United States has won 2,522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, greater than another country, and 305 within the Winter Olympic Games, the second one maximum behind Norway.[512] While maximum main U.S. sports activities reminiscent of baseball and American football have developed out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and skiing are American innovations, a few of which have grow to be common international.[513]Lacrosse and browsing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact.[514] The most-watched particular person sports are golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR and IndyCar.[515][516]

Mass media Further knowledge: Media of the United States See also: Newspapers within the United States, Television in the United States, Internet within the United States, and Radio in the United States The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City

The four main broadcasters within the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), American Broadcasting Company (ABC), and Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX). The 4 major broadcast television networks are all business entities. Cable tv gives hundreds of channels catering to a lot of niches.[517] Americans concentrate to radio programming, additionally in large part business, on average simply over two-and-a-half hours a day.[518]

In 1998, the collection of U.S. business radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by way of universities and public government for tutorial purposes and are financed by public or non-public finances, subscriptions, and company underwriting. Much public radio broadcasting is equipped by NPR. NPR was once integrated in February 1970 beneath the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; its tv counterpart, PBS, was created by means of the similar legislation. As of September 30, 2014, there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. in line with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[519]

Well-known newspapers include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and USA Today.[520] Although the price of publishing has greater through the years, the price of newspapers has most often remained low, forcing newspapers to rely extra on advertising earnings and on articles equipped by a significant twine carrier, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for his or her nationwide and global coverage. With very few exceptions, the entire newspapers within the U.S. are privately owned, both by huge chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which personal dozens or even loads of newspapers; through small chains that personal a handful of papers; or in a state of affairs that is increasingly uncommon, by way of individuals or families. Major towns regularly have "alternative weeklies" to enrich the mainstream day by day papers, such as New York City's The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly. Major towns may also give a boost to a neighborhood industry magazine, business papers in the case of native industries, and papers for native ethnic and social teams. Aside from internet portals and search engines, the preferred web sites are Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon, and Twitter.[521]

More than 800 publications are produced in Spanish, the second one maximum recurrently used language within the United States in the back of English.[522][523]

See additionally

Index of United States–connected articles Lists of U.S. state topics Outline of the United States


^ English is the respectable language of 32 states; English and Hawaiian are both reputable languages in Hawaii, and English and 20 Indigenous languages are professional in Alaska. Algonquian, Cherokee, and Sioux are among many different reputable languages in Native-controlled lands right through the rustic. French is a de facto, but unofficial, language in Maine and Louisiana, whilst New Mexico regulation grants Spanish a distinct standing. In 5 territories, English as well as one or more indigenous languages are legit: Spanish in Puerto Rico, Samoan in American Samoa, and Chamorro in both Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Carolinian could also be an professional language in the Northern Mariana Islands.[6][7] ^ The ancient and casual demonym Yankee has been implemented to Americans, New Englanders, or northeasterners for the reason that 18th century. ^ a b c The United States is the third-largest nation, after Canada, if coastal and territorial waters are included. If excluded, it is the fourth-largest, after China. Coastal/territorial waters incorporated: 3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,517 km2)[18] Coastal/territorial waters excluded: 3,696,100 sq mi (9,572,900 km2)[19] ^ Excludes Puerto Rico and the opposite unincorporated islands as a result of they're counted one after the other in US census statistics. ^ See Time within the United States for information about regulations governing time zones within the United States. ^ Drivers inside the U.S. Virgin Islands drive on the left, making it the one jurisdiction of the United States to make use of left-hand visitors, as opposed to right-hand traffic. ^ The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. There are eleven smaller island spaces with out permanent populations: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island is disputed.[17] ^ Inupiaq, Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Unanga (Aleut), Denaʼina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwichʼin, Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian. ^ People born in American Samoa are non-citizen U.S. nationals, unless one among their folks is a U.S. citizen.[310] In 2019, a courtroom ruled that American Samoans are U.S. voters, but the litigation is onging.[311][312]


^ 36 U.S.C. § 302 ^ a b c d .mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,clear),url("//")appropriate 0.1em middle/12px code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:none; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33; .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). 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You May Never Guess "Here, on January 2, 1776, seven months before the Declaration of Independence and a week before the publication of Paine's Common Sense, Stephen Moylan, an acting secretary to General George Washington, spells it out, 'I should like vastly to go with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain' to seek foreign assistance for the cause." New-York Historical Society Museum & Library ^ Fay, John (July 15, 2016) The forgotten Irishman who named the 'United States of America' "According to the NY Historical Society, Stephen Moylan was the man responsible for the earliest documented use of the phrase 'United States of America'. But who was Stephen Moylan?" ^ ""To the inhabitants of Virginia", by A PLANTER. Dixon and Hunter's. April 6, 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia. Letter is also included in Peter Force's American Archives". The Virginia Gazette. 5 (1287). 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Retrieved March 5, 2021. ^ Christine Marie Petto (2007). When France Was King of Cartography: The Patronage and Production of Maps in Early Modern France. Lexington Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7391-6247-7. ^ James E. Seelye Jr.; Shawn Selby (2018). Shaping North America: From Exploration to the American Revolution [Three volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-4408-3669-5. ^ Robert Neelly Bellah; Richard Madsen; William M. Sullivan; Ann Swidler; Steven M. Tipton (1985). Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. University of California Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-520-05388-5. OL 7708974M. ^ Remini 2007, pp. 2–3 ^ Johnson 1997, pp. 26–30 ^ "Russians settle Alaska". History. Retrieved February 21, 2021. ^ Ripper, 2008 p. 6 ^ Ripper, 2008 p. 5 ^ Calloway, 1998, p. 55 ^ Joseph 2016, p. 590. ^ Cook, Noble (1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6. ^ Treuer, David. "The new book 'The Other Slavery' will make you rethink American history". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 10, 2019. ^ Stannard, 1993 p. xii ^ "The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5 ^ Bianchine, Russo, 1992 pp. 225–232 ^ Jackson, L. P. (1924). "Elizabethan Seamen and the African Slave Trade". The Journal of Negro History. 9 (1): 1–17. doi:10.2307/2713432. JSTOR 2713432. S2CID 150232893. ^ Tadman, 2000, p. 1534 ^ Schneider, 2007, p. 484 ^ Lien, 1913, p. 522 ^ Davis, 1996, p. 7 ^ Quirk, 2011, p. 195 ^ Bilhartz, Terry D.; Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1817-7. ^ Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. UNC Press Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-4723-7. ^ Walton, 2009, pp. 38–39 ^ Foner, Eric (1998). The Story of American Freedom (1st ed.). W.W. Norton. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-393-04665-6. tale of American freedom. ^ Walton, 2009, p. 35 ^ Otis, James (1763). The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved. ^ Humphrey, Carol Sue (2003). The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 To 1800. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-313-32083-5. ^ a b Fabian Young, Alfred; Nash, Gary B.; Raphael, Ray (2011). Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation. Random House Digital. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-0-307-27110-5. ^ Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9. ^ Boyer, 2007, pp. 192–193 ^ Cogliano, Francis D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy. University of Virginia Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-8139-2733-6. ^ Walton, 2009, p. 43 ^ Gordon, 2004, pp. 27,29 ^ Clark, Mary Ann (May 2012). Then We'll Sing a New Song: African Influences on America's Religious Landscape. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4422-0881-0. ^ Heinemann, Ronald L., et al., Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: a historical past of Virginia 1607–2007, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4, p. 197 ^ a b Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0. ^ Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. UNM Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8263-1981-4. ^ "Louisiana Purchase" (PDF). National Park Services. Retrieved March 1, 2011. ^ Klose, Nelson; Jones, Robert F. (1994). United States History to 1877. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8120-1834-9. ^ Morrison, Michael A. (April 28, 1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 13–21. ISBN 978-0-8078-4796-1. ^ Kemp, Roger L. (2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015. ^ McIlwraith, Thomas F.; Muller, Edward K. (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015. ^ Wolf, Jessica. "Revealing the history of genocide against California's Native Americans". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved July 8, 2018. ^ Rawls, James J. (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-21771-3. ^ Paul Fryer, "Building an American Empire: The Era of Territorial and Political Expansion," (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017) ^ Black, Jeremy (2011). Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery in North America, 1519–1871. Indiana University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-253-35660-4. ^ Stuart Murray (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.Harold T. Lewis (2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History (Concise ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-19-521921-0. ^ Vinovskis, Maris (1990). Toward A Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-39559-5. ^ Shearer Davis Bowman (1993). Masters and Lords: Mid-19th-Century U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. Oxford UP. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-536394-4. ^ Jason E. Pierce (2016). Making the White Man's West: Whiteness and the Creation of the American West. University Press of Colorado. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-60732-396-9. ^ Marie Price; Lisa Benton-Short (2008). Migrants to the Metropolis: The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Syracuse University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8156-3186-6. ^ John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. Retrieved October 25, 2015. ^ Winchester, pp. 351, 385 ^ Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890. Mountain Press Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9. ^ "Toward a Market Economy". CliffsNotes. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved December 23, 2014. ^ "Purchase of Alaska, 1867". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 23, 2014. ^ "The Spanish–American War, 1898". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 24, 2014. ^ Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975. ^ "Virgin Islands History". Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ Kirkland, Edward. Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor, and Public Policy (1961 ed.). pp. 400–405. ^ Zinn, 2005, pp. 321–357 ^ Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945–1960," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, pp. 52–76. ^ James Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (Harvard UP, 1963) ^ George B. Tindall, "Business Progressivism: Southern Politics in the Twenties," South Atlantic Quarterly 62 (Winter 1963): 92–106. ^ McDuffie, Jerome; Piggrem, Gary Wayne; Woodworth, Steven E. (2005). U.S. History Super Review. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-7386-0070-3. ^ Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55861-139-9. Carrie Chapmann Catt led an army of voteless women in 1919 to force Congress to cross the constitutional amendment giving them the suitable to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920. ... Catt was once one of the crucial best-known ladies in the United States in the first half of of the 20th century and was once on all lists of well-known American girls. ^ Winchester pp. 410–411 ^ Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (seventh ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6. ^ Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-394-56004-5. ^ James Noble Gregory (1991). American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507136-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015."Mass Exodus From the Plains". American Experience. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2014.Fanslow, Robin A. (April 6, 1997). "The Migrant Experience". American Folklore Center. Library of Congress. Retrieved October 5, 2014.Walter J. Stein (1973). California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-8371-6267-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015. ^ The reputable WRA record from 1946 state it used to be 120,000 other folks. See War Relocation Authority (1946). The Evacuated People: A Quantitative Study. p. 8.. This quantity does not come with people held in other camps akin to the ones run via the DoJ or U.S. Army. Other assets can give numbers moderately more or less than 120,000. ^ Yamasaki, Mitch. "Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War II: A Documentary History" (PDF). World War II Internment in Hawaii. Archived from the unique (PDF) on December 13, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2015. ^ Stoler, Mark A. "George C. Marshall and the "Europe-First" Strategy, 1939–1951: A Study in Diplomatic as well as Military History" (PDF). 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Further reading

Acharya, Viral V.; Cooley, Thomas F.; Richardson, Matthew P.; Walter, Ingo (2010). Regulating Wall Street: The Dodd-Frank Act and the New Architecture of Global Finance. Wiley. p. 592. ISBN 978-0-470-76877-8. Baptist, Edward E. (2014). The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00296-2. Barth, James; Jahera, John (2010). "US Enacts Sweeping Financial Reform Legislation". Journal of Financial Economic Policy. 2 (3): 192–195. doi:10.1108/17576381011085412. Berkin, Carol; Miller, Christopher L.; Cherny, Robert W.; Gormly, James L. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. Cengage Learning. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-618-99485-4. Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. PMID 1483570. Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-68617-4. Boyer, Paul S.; Clark Jr., Clifford E.; Kett, Joseph F.; Salisbury, Neal; Sitkoff, Harvard; Woloch, Nancy (2007). The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. Cengage Learning. p. 588. ISBN 978-0-618-80161-9. Brokenshire, Brad (1993). Washington State Place Names. Caxton Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-87004-562-2. Calloway, Colin G. (1998). New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America. JHU Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-8018-5959-5. Cobarrubias, Juan (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-90-279-3358-4. Cowper, Marcus (2011). National Geographic History Book: An Interactive Journey. National Geographic Society. ISBN 978-1-4262-0679-5. Davis, Kenneth C. (1996). Don't know much concerning the Civil War. New York: William Marrow and Co. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-688-11814-3. Daynes, Byron W.; Sussman, Glen (2010). White House Politics and the Environment: Franklin D. Roosevelt to George W. Bush. Texas A&M University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-60344-254-1. OCLC 670419432. Presidential environmental policies, 1933–2009 Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Vellanoweth, Rene L (2008). A Canyon Through Time: Archaeology, History, and Ecology of the Tecolote Canyon Area, Santa Barbara County. California: University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0-87480-879-7. Fagan, Brian M. (2016). Ancient Lives: An Introduction to Archaeology and Prehistory. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-35027-9. Feldstein, Sylvan G.; Fabozzi, Frank J. (2011). The Handbook of Municipal Bonds. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1376. ISBN 978-1-118-04494-0. Ferguson, Thomas; Rogers, Joel (1986). "The Myth of America's Turn to the Right". The Atlantic. 257 (5): 43–53. Retrieved March 11, 2013. Fladmark, Ok.R. (2017). "Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America". American Antiquity. 44 (1): 55–69. doi:10.2307/279189. ISSN 0002-7316. JSTOR 279189. Flannery, Tim (2015). The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America and Its Peoples. Open Road + Grove/Atlantic. ISBN 978-0-8021-9109-0. Fraser, Steve; Gerstle, Gary (1989). The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order: 1930–1980. American History: Political science. Princeton University Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-691-00607-9. Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9. Gelo, Daniel J. (2018). Indians of the Great Plains. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-351-71812-7. García, Ofelia (2011). Bilingual Education within the twenty first Century: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-5978-7. Gold, Susan Dudley (2006). United States V. Amistad: Slave Ship Mutiny. Marshall Cavendish. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7614-2143-6. Gordon, John Steele (2004). An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-009362-4. Graebner, Norman A.; Burns, Richard Dean; Siracusa, Joseph M. (2008). Reagan, Bush, Gorbachev: Revisiting the End of the Cold War. Praeger Security International Series. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-313-35241-6. Haines, Michael Robert; Haines, Michael R.; Steckel, Richard H. (2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7. Haymes, Stephen; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Miller, Reuben, eds. (2014). The Routledge Handbook of Poverty within the United States. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-67344-0. Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E.L. (2013). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-285-06141-2. Hoopes, Townsend; Brinkley, Douglas (1997). FDR and the Creation of the U.N. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08553-2. Ingersoll, Thomas N. (2016). The Loyalist Problem in Revolutionary New England. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-12861-3. Inghilleri, Moira (2016). Translation and Migration. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-39980-5. Jacobs, Lawrence R. (2010). Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-978142-3. Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-195213-5. Kurian, George T., ed. (2001). Encyclopedia of American research. New York: Grolier Educational. ISBN 978-0-7172-9222-6. OCLC 46343385. Joseph, Paul (2016). The Sage Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspectives. Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-4833-5988-5. Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-8160-3337-9. Kidder, David S.; Oppenheim, Noah D. (2007). The Intellectual Devotional: American History: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently about Our Nation's Past. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-744-6. Kruse, Kevin M. (2015). One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-04949-3. Leckie, Robert (1990). None died in useless: The Saga of the American Civil War. New York: Harper-Collins. p. 682. ISBN 978-0-06-016280-1. Lockard, Craig (2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume B: From 600 to 1750. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-111-79083-7. Martinez, Donna; Bordeaux, Jennifer L. Williams (2016). 50 Events That Shaped American Indian History: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3577-3. Martinez, Donna; Sage, Grace; Ono, Azusa (2016). Urban American Indians: Reclaiming Native Space: Reclaiming Native Space. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3208-6. Martone, Eric (2016). Italian Americans: The History and Culture of a People. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-995-2. Leffler, Melvyn P. (2010). "The emergence of an American grand strategy, 1945–1952". In Westad, Odd Arne (ed.). The Cambridge History of the Cold War. 1: Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–89. ISBN 978-0-521-83719-4. OCLC 309835719. Lemon, James T. (1987). "Colonial America in the 18th Century" (PDF). In Mitchell, Robert D.; Groves, Paul A. (eds.). North America: the historical geography of a changing continent. Rowman & Littlefield. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2013. Lien, Arnold Johnson (1913). Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law. 54. New York: Columbia University. p. 604. Weierman, Karen Woods (2005). One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, And Law, 1820–1870. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-55849-483-1. Levenstein, Harvey (2003). Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23439-0. Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage in Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project" (PDF). Michigan Journal of History (Fall). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013. Meltzer, David J. (2009). First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-94315-5. The New York Times (2007). The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind (2d ed.). St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-37659-8. Mostert, Mary (2005). The Threat of Anarchy Leads to the Constitution of the United States. CTR Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9753851-4-2. Onuf, Peter S. (2010). The Origins of the Federal Republic: Jurisdictional Controversies within the United States, 1775–1787. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0038-6. Perdue, Theda; Green, Michael D (2005). The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Southeast. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50602-1. Price, David A. (2003). Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Start of a New Nation. Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-42670-3. Quirk, Joel (2011). The Anti-Slavery Project: From the Slave Trade to Human Trafficking. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8122-4333-8. Ranlet, Philip (1999). Vaughan, Alden T. (ed.). New England Encounters: Indians and Euroamericans Ca. 1600–1850. North Eastern University Press. Rausch, David A. (1994). Native American Voices. Grand Rapids: Baker Books. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8010-7773-9. Remini, Robert V. (2007). The House: The History of the House of Representatives. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-134111-3. Richter, Daniel Ok.; Merrell, James H., eds. (2003). Beyond the covenant chain : the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian North America, 1600–1800. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-02299-4. OCLC 51306167. Ripper, Jason (2008). American Stories: To 1877. M.E. Sharpe. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-7656-2903-6. Russell, John Henderson (1913). The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619–1865. Johns Hopkins University. p. 196. 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PMID 17322060. S2CID 23205379. Weiss, Edith Brown; Jacobson, Harold Karan (2000). Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-73132-4. Williams, Daniel K. (2012). "Questioning Conservatism's Ascendancy: A Reexamination of the Rightward Shift in Modern American Politics" (PDF). Reviews in American History. 40 (2): 325–331. doi:10.1353/rah.2012.0043. S2CID 96461510. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 17, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013. Wilson, Wendy S.; Thompson, Lloyd M. (1997). Native Americans: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Converging Cultures. Walch Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8251-3332-9. Winchester, Simon (2013). The males who United the States. Harper Collins. pp. 198, 216, 251, 253. ISBN 978-0-06-207960-2. Zinn, Howard (2005). A People's History of the United States. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. ISBN 978-0-06-083865-2.

Internet assets

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External links

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